The Tempest Power and Control

AO1 -Act 1 Scene 2: Prospero tells Miranda of his betrayal by Alonso and Antonio andexplains that he has instructed Ariel to shipwreck the King’s party; Arielchallenges Prospero; Prospero lambastes Caliban and punishes him for hisdefiance.Act 2 Scene 1: Antonio and Sebastian discuss the idea of conscience and attempt to murder Alonso and Gonzalo.Act 2 Scene 2: Caliban acquires a new master, Stephano, who calls him’Monster.’Act 5 Scene 1: Ariel reports that he has charmed the noblemen into immobility asProspero instructed him to do. Prospero plans to break his magic staff and drownhis books after this last piece of his revenge plan is complete.-Antonio and Alonso aim to get rid of Prospero. Gonzalo envisages an equal world with no sovereignty, he is mocked. Sebastian reminds him that he would still be king and would therefore still have power – even if he did not exercise it.-Colonization – Prospero: embodies the all-controlling, omnipresent rulerGonzalo: embodies the utopian visionaryCaliban: embodies the rightful native rulerUltimately, Miranda and Ferdinand take control of the island, but what sort of rulers will they make? The audience is asked to question their suitability: Are they too weak to rule after we have seen them manipulated by Prospero and Alonso?
AO2 -(Boatswain to Gonzalo, during the storm) You are a councillor; if you can command these elements to silence … use your authority -(To Miranda, about his rule in Milan) “[On Antonio I] put the manage of my state” (1.2)-(To Miranda, about his rule in Milan) “The government I cast upon my brother, and to my state grew stranger, being transported and rapt in secret studies” (1.2)-(To Miranda, about his rule in Milan) “I thus neglecting worldly ends” (1.2)-(To Caliban) “Thou most lying slave” (1.2)-(To himself about Miranda, on seeing her interest in Ferdinand) “Thou art infected” (3.1)-(To himself, about Alonso, Sebastian, and Antonio) “They now are in my power” (3.3)-(To Ferdinand) “As my gift, and thine own acquisition worthily purchased, take my daughter” (4.1)-(To the audience) “Now my charms are all overthrown, and what strength I have is mine own, which is most faint” (Epilogue)-(To Prospero) Ariel demands “my liberty” (1.2)-(To Prospero) “This island’s mine by Sycorax my mother, which thou takest from me” (1.2)- Antonio (To Sebastian, after the others have fallen asleep) “My strong imagination sees a crown dropping upon thy head” (2.1)-(To Sebastian) Caliban is “no doubt marketable” (5.1)
AO3 -Machiavellian deceit – one of the main tools of political empowerment in early 1600s. Machiavelli was Italian historian and political theorist – wrote The Prince. ‘The employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct’ duplicity, dishonest, treacherous, two-faced, devious, back-stabbing etc. Prospero over Caliban and Ariel, Antonio allegedly, -Earliest record of play being performed is 1 November 1611 in front of King James I, then performed again in 1612-13 as part of marriage celebrations in front of J’s daugher Elizabeth and Frederick German king – Prospero’s scheme to make Miranda fall in love with Ferdinand be linked to James I’s schemes of marriage diplomac to extend his power-Earlier in 1611 Holy Roman emperor Rudolf II (whose power extended over large parts of Europe including Milan and Naples) finally been displaced from power by brother Matthias. One of reasons was because Rudolf had neglected duties and secluded himself with studies of occult and magical arts-situate the European dynastic concflicts and debates over a king’s rights and responsibilities at the core of the play -can be interpreted as colonization but doesn’t want to make permanent home, primary project is to reclaim Milan and take vengeance on Antonio, find a suitable match for Miranda in order to secure a dynasty (line of hereditary rulers). all of these aims of succession, political rivalry, marriage diplomacy at core of politics of power in 1500s and 1600s
AO5 -Colonization or not?-Usurpation of Ferdinand over Alonso or not -‘He is a tyrant’ but by end of play ‘feels pity for the human condition’ McLeish and Unwin-it is not a ‘discourse on colonialism. it is a wildly experimental stage comedy’ Harold Bloom-Prospero is ‘a vengeful magus who turns to forgiveness’-‘Prospero enacts the role of omnipotent Western patriarch and Caliban that of the ‘native’ dispossesed savage Other, the embodiment of non-culture’ Pulitano-‘No one could watch Prospero’s behaviour and not think of King James’ Keith Linley -The play can seem ‘unfathomable’ -‘Prospero rules the place with an iron grip, enslaving and torturing Caliban and forcing the spirit Ariel to do his bidding’ Andrew Dickson