The Merchant of Venice Act 4

Why does the Duke feel sorry for Antonio? Antonio must face a stony adversary
“an inhuman _________ Uncapable of pity, void and empty From any dram of ______.” wretch; mercy; spoken by the Duke
Antonio thanks the Duke for attempting to _______ Shylock from claiming a pound of Antonio’s skin dissuade
Antonio is prepared to suffer, with a ____________ of spirit, Shylock’s tyranny and rage quietness
Why does Antonio refuse to fight his patience against Shylock’s fury? Shylock stands unmoving and no lawful means can deliver Antonio from out of Shylock’s reach
Is Antonio content with accepting his punishment? He is not happy with it, but sees no point in trying to fight against it
The Duke, along with the rest of the world, believes that Shylock will uphold his cruel disposition up to the last possible _________ before action is taken. Then, they believe that Shylock will show mercy and _______ more strange than his current apparent cruelty. minute; remorse
The Duke believes that when it is time for Shylock to enact Antonio’s penalty, the Jew will not only forgive the __________, but will forgive their differences in ____________. penalty; principle
The Duke expects Shylock to “glance an eye of _______” on Antonio’s losses, that have lately crowded onto his back, enough to press a royal merchant down and draw sympathy from the hardest Turk or Tartar. pity
The Duke expects a ________ answer from Shylock gentle (forgiving, Christian)
Shylock has sworn by his ____________ that he will have the due and forfeit of his bond with Antonio holy Sabbath
Shylock has informed the _______ that he plans to have the forfeit of his bond Duke
Shylock threatens the Duke, saying that if he denies the Jew’s bond, every merchant in the city would doubt whether or not the rules of the _______ (rights/restrictions of foreign merchants) and the __________ (laws granting foreigns the freedom to conduct business) would be enforced. Shylock implies that if his contract with Antonio is not enforced, all merchants would doubt whether any contract would be enforced, and business would grind to _______. charter; freedoms; halt
Responding to the question of why Shylock would rather have a pound of Antonio’s flesh than 3,000 ducats, Shylock says that it is merely his __________ disposition/whim
If he ___________, Shylock could pay 10,000 ducats to have a rat in his house killed. Shylock uses this to convey to the audience that he wants a pound of Antonio’s flesh simply because he desires it wanted to
Some men hate roasted _____, some are mad if they behold a _____, and others pee when they hear the ______. pig; cat; bagpipe
“affection, Mistress of passion, sways it to the mood Of what it likes or loathes.” Shylock; he is saying that there is no sense in trying to explain why men like or dislike certain things
Just as there is no reason why one man may loathe roasted pig, or become mad when they hold a cat, or pee when they hear the bagpipe, offending others and himself, Shylock cannot/will not give a reason as to why he desires Antonio’s flesh, other than the deep-seated _________ and certain __________ he bears Antonio hate and loathing
Why does Shylock want a pound of Antonio’s flesh? because he wants it; he gives no concrete reason
Does Shylock believe that the suit the holds against Antonio is profitable? no
“This is no answer, thou unfeeling man, 64 To excuse the current of thy cruelty. “ Bassanio
Does Bassanio accept Shylock’s answer as to why he desires a pound of Antonio’s flesh? no
Bassanio tells Shylock that his answer (that he wants a pound of Antonio’s skin simply because it is his disposition) is unacceptable to excuse the extent of Shylock’s _________ cruelty
Bassanio calls Shylock an ____________ man unfeeling
“I am not bound to please thee with my answers.” Shylock
Does Shylock care whether or not the answer he gave to the court was acceptable? no
Bassanio asks Shylock if all men kill the things they do not ___________ love (implying: do you have to kill Antonio simply because you do not love him?)
Shylock asks if any man hates something and would not ______ it kill
Bassanio says that every offence (disagreement) is not ________ at first. Shylock counters, asking Bassanio if he would let a serpent _______ him twice hate; sting
Antonio tells Bassanio to stop arguing with Shylock because it is ____________ futile
By arguing with Shylock, Bassanio may as well bid the high tide to ______________ diminish in height
By arguing with Shylock, Bassanio may as well ask the ________ why he ate the baby sheep and made its mother cry wolf
By arguing with Shylock, Bassanio may as well forbid the ________________ to wag their high tops and to make no noise mountain pines
Bassanio may as well seek to accomplish the impossible, rather than seek to soften Shylock’s hard Jewish ____________ heart
Antonio tells Bassanio not to make any more offers, nor use any further means to free him from his bond, but with all brief convenience let Antonio have ________ and the Jew his ________. judgement; will
Bassanio offers Shylock _________ ducats for his original 3,000 6,000
If every ducat in 6,000 ducats were were in 6 parts and every part a _________, Shylock would not accept them in return for Antonio’s flesh ducat
“How shalt thou hope for mercy, rendering none?” the Duke
How does the Duke appeal to logos to try and convince Shylock to show mercy? He asks Shylock how the Jew can hope for mercy while rendering none to Antonio.
When the Duke asks Shylock how he can hope for mercy while rendering none, Shylock responds saying that he has no ___________ to dread because he has done nothing wrong judgement
The majority of Christians have purchased ____________, which like their dogs and mules, they use in degrading duties slaves
Why do Christians use slaves in degrading duties? Because they have purchased the slaves
“shall I say to you, 94 Let them be free, marry them to your heirs? 95 Why sweat they under burdens? let their beds 96 Be made as soft as yours and let their palates 97 Be season’d with such viands?” Shylock; he is not in the position to tell the Christians what to do with their slaves
What will the Christians answer if Shylock tells them to allow their slaves to marry their heirs, not work them as hard, give them beds as soft as theirs and let their plates be just as seasoned? “The slaves are ours”
Antonio’s pound of flesh is dearly _________ by Shylock bought
If the court denies Shylock his bond, then “_____ upon your law” because there is no ________ in the laws of Venice fie (away with); force (if Shylock is denied his bond, then he will act against the laws of Venice to claim what is rightly his)
“I stand for judgment: answer; shall I have it?” Shylock
What is Shylock’s judgement that he faces that he had spoken of before? Whether or not his bond will be enforced (or will he have to enforce it himself)
The Duke will dismiss the court, an authority he rightfully has, unless what? Bellario shows up to judge the case
Shylock purchased the pound of Antonio’s flesh and may do whatever he pleases with it, and the Christian audience is not in the place to _____________ what he does with it nor why question
Why would it be bad for Antonio if the Duke dismissed the court? Shylock has vowed to act against the law of Venice if need be to claim his bond, so to be freed from his bond in court is his only hope for safety
Why is the Duke about to cancel the court case? One of the main purposes of the case was to see if Shylock would agree to show mercy upon Antonio and drop the bond he holds against him. However, Shylock shows no sign of relenting so continuance of the case is futile
A messenger of __________ waits outside with a letter from Bellario, straight from Padua Salerio
How does Bassanio react to the news that there is a letter from Bellario? Bassanio reacts as if it is good news and tells Antonio to have courage
“The Jew shall have my flesh, blood, bones and all, 113 Ere thou shalt lose for me one drop of blood.” Bassanio
Bassanio tells Antonio that __________ should have his own flesh, blood, bones, and all before Antonio shal lose one drop of blood on behalf of Bassanio Shylock
Antonio is the _________ sheep of the flock
Who has sent for Bellario? the Duke
When Bassanio tries to rally Antonio’s spirits once Bellario’s messenger arrives, Antonio says that he is the _________ for death; the weakest kind of fruit drops earliest to the ground, fittest
Antonio believes that all that is left for Bassanio to do (and the best use of his time) is to go on living write Antonio’s ___________ epitaph
Who hands the Duke the letter from Bellario? Nerissa dressed as the judge’s clerk
Who is the messenger introduced by Salerio? Nerissa disguised as the judge’s clerk
Shylock is sharpening his knife to cut the forfeiture from that ____________ over there bankrupt
Gratiano says that Shylock is not sharpening his knife on his sole, but on his ___________ soul
Sharpening the knife on one’s soul makes the knife sharper than any _________ can metal
The hangman’s axe does not bear half the keenness as Shylock’s _________ envy
Gratiano asks if any prayers can pierce Shylock’s determination to collect Antonio’s forfeiture, but Shylock says “No, none that thou hast _____ enough to make.” wit
Gratiano to Shylock: Because you are permitted to live, let ____________ follow your actions justice
“Who believes that “That souls of animals infuse themselves into the trunks of men?” Pythagoras
Who almost makes Gratiano waver in his faith? Shylock (his cruelty)
Gratiano believes that Shylock’s soul must be that of a__________who was hanged for killing a person, explaining Shylock’s bloody, starved personality. wolf
The soul of a wolf must have infused itself into Shylock when he was where? In his “unhallow’d dam” (mother’s stomach)
Shylock tells Gratiano that until Gratiano can ________ off the seal of Antonio’s bond, Gratiano is injuring his lungs by speaking so loud rail (argue)
Shylock tells Gratiano to repair his ____________ or it will fall to incurable ruin wit (intelligence)
Shylock says, “I stand here for ________.” law
Does the Duke grant the young judge entrance into the court? yes
In his letter, Bellario says that he is ________ sick
When the Duke’s messenger arrived, a young from __________ happened to be visiting Bellario Rome
What is the name of the judge that Portia pretends to be? Who also shares this name? Balthasar; her servant has the same name
Bellario informed Balthasar about the case between the Jew and the merchant, turned over many _______ with him, and the young lawyer is now ________ with Bellario’s opinion books; furnished
Bellario says that Balthasar is furnished with the well-respected lawyer’s opinion, which he has bettered with his own _____________- learning
Bellario pleads the Duke not to let Balthasar’s lack of years to impediment the court’s _____________ of the young lawyer estimation
Referring to Balthasar, Bellario never knew so young a body with so old a ________ head
Bellario says in the letter that Balthasar’s performance at the trial will make known to the world the young lawyer’s ________________ competence
What is the first question that Portia asks? Which one is the merchant and which is the Jew?
How do Bellario, the Duke, and Portia refer Shylock as? the Jew
Portia says the suit that Shylock follows is strange, however, Venetian law cannot find ________ with it as he proceeds fault
When asked if he confesses the bond, what does Antonio say? “I do”
Upon hearing that Antonio confesses the bond, Portia says that the Jew must be ____________ merciful
In Portia’s opinion, mercy is not forced: it drops from __________ as a gentle rain Heaven
Mercy is a blessing for both the ___________ and ___________ giver and taker
_________- becomes the crowned monarch better than his crown Mercy
Mercy is above the _________ sway sceptured
Mercy is enthroned into the hearts of __________ and is an attribute to _________ himself kings; God
“[A king’s] sceptre shows the force of temporal power, 191 The attribute to awe and majesty, 192 Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings; 193 But mercy is above this sceptred sway;” Portia
A king’s sceptre demonstrates the force of his _________ power, while mercy demonstrates his true power material (temporal)
Power on Earth is closest to the power of God when _________ tempers ____________ mercy; justice
Portia asks the Jew to consider that although justice may be his plea, in the course of justice, no one shall see ________________ salvation
People pray for mercy, and that same prayer tells people to _________ mercy show
Why has Portia spoken to the Jew of showing mercy? to soften his plea for strict justice and show merciful reasons why he should not ask for it
If Shylock follows his plea, the strict court of Venice must give their sentence ____________- the merchant against
“My deeds upon my head! I crave the law, The penalty and forfeit of my bond.” Shylock
When Shylock refuses to discontinue his plea for strict justice, he says that he will take the ______________ of his actions, but will not forget the forfeit of his bond consequences
Portia asks Shylock whether or not Antonio is able to give him the ______________ money
Bassanio tells the judge that they indeed do have the money, and are willing to pay twice the sum; if that will not suffice, he will sign a contract to pay ten times the sum and offer his _____, __________-, and ________ as security hands, head, and heart
If the large sum of money Bassanio is willing to pay to release Antonio from the bond will not suffice, then it must appear that malice overthrows _____________ righteousness
Bassanio asks the Duke to force the law to his ____________; to do great right by doing a little ____________; to curb this cruel _________ of his will authority; wrong; devil
How does Portia respond to Bassanio’s plead to the Duke to break the law to save Antonio? “there is no power in Venice [that] can alter a decree established”
If the Duke were to break the law to save Antonio, the situation would become a ___________ and many errors in the justice system will be made following its example precedent
What does Shylock call Portia? a Daniel (intervened when two men falsely accused a woman)
How does Shylock view the young lawyer when she says that the bond may not be uplifted? Shylock says that the young judge is wise, and he honors him
Shylock implies that he needs no _________ and therefore does not have to show it mercy
Shylock says he will accept whatever consequences arise from his refusal to show mercy, just as ___________ should accept the consequences of his own actions Antonio
What does Portia ask to see? Who supplies it to her? the bond; Shylock
When Portia tells Shylock that he is being offered three times the sum of the loan, he justifies his insistence to enact the terms of the bond by saying that he has an oath (to enact the bond) in __________. Shylock is not going to lay _________- upon his soul, not for Venice. Heaven; perjury
Portia declares the bond to be forfeit and says that Shylock may lawfully claim a pound of Antonio’s flesh, to be cut off nearest Antonio’s __________. heart
Although he may legally claim a pound of Antonio’s skin, Portia asks Shylock to be merciful, take _______ times the sum of the loan, and allow her to tear the bond three
Shylock will tear the bond once it is ___________- paid according to the conditions
Shylock says that Portia is a worthy judge, she knows the law, and her __________has been sound exposition (explanation of a theory)
Shylock asks Portia, by the law, to proceed to ____________ judgement
Shylock swears by his soul that there is no power in the _________ of man to alter him from his insistent wish to fulfill the terms of his bond tongue
Antonio begs the court to give the ____________ judgement
What is Portia’s initial judgement? Antonio must prepare his bosom for knife
Portia says that the law fully ____________ the penalty due as a result of the bond authorizes
Shylock comments on how Portia is much more ___________ than she (he) looks elder (wise)
Portia asks if there is a _____________ to measure the flesh balance
Who has the balance already prepared? Shylock
Portia tells Shylock to pay for a __________ to have on hand to stop Antonio’s bleeding, lest he bleed to death surgeon
When asked to hire a surgeon, Shylock asks whether hiring a surgeon was a part of the ____________ bond
When Shylock asks whether hiring a surgeon was part of the bond, she says it was not expressed but so what? It would be good for the Jew to do as __________ charity
Does Shylock end up agreeing to hire a surgeon? no because it was not expressly stated in the bond
Antonio says that he is well ______________ to die prepared
Why does Antonio believe that Fortune is showing him more kindness than is custom? Fortune often makes men live long, miserable lives after losing all their wealth, but she is ending Antonio’s misery sooner rather than later
Antonio asks Bassanio to ___________ him to Bassanio’s honorable wife and tell her of how he died commend
Antonio wants Bassanio to speak of him well in death, to tell others of how he loved him, and allow Portia to judge whether or not Bassanio had not once a _________ love
Antonio tells Bassanio to grieve for the loss of a friend, but not for the fact that Antonio is dying to pay Bassanio’s ________ debt
Is Antonio sorry that he has to pay Bassanio’s debt? no
Antonio does not repent that he will pay Bassanio’s debt; for if the Jew cuts deep enough, Antonio will pay it immediately with all his ________ (his death will be quick and he will pay Bassanio’s debt with all his heart) heart
Bassanio’s wife is as dear to him as ______ itself life
Bassanio would willingly sacrifice his ________, __________, and _____________ to “this devil” (Shylock) in order to save Antonio life, wife, and all the world
Portia says that if Bassanio’s wife were there, she would give little _________ for his willingness to sacrifice her thanks
Does Portia visibly react to Bassanio’s declaration that he would sacrifice his wife to save Antonio? no
Gratiano wishes his beloved wife was in __________ so that she could hold influence over the Jew and make him change his mind Heaven
Nerissa says that Gratiano’s comment would make a an __________- house unquiet
Shylock says that that is what the wives of Bassanio and Gratiano deserve for marrying a ____________ Christian
Shylock would rather see his daughter married to the worst possible Jew (descendant of Barrabas-criminal released in preference to Jesus), rather than to a ___________ Christian
Shylock tells the court that they are ________________and asks them to proceed with the sentence wasting time
“And you must cut this flesh from off his breast: the law allows it, and the court ___________ it.” Portia; “awards”
Portia says that although the bond gives Shylock the rightful claim to a pound of Antonio’s flesh, it does not allow him to spill any ____________ blood
Therefore, Shylock may take his pound of flesh, but if he spill one drop of Christian blood, Shylock’s __________ and _________ will be confiscated by the state of Venice land and goods
“O upright judge! Mark, Jew: O learned judge!” Gratiano
Portia says that the Jew has asked for justice, and he shall have it, but _______ of it than he desires more
Shylock then agrees to accept _______ times the sum of the loan and let the Christian go three
Portia does not allow Bassanio to give Shylock the money, for the Jew shall have nothing but the __________ penalty
Portia tells Shylock to go ahead and cut of a pound of Antonio’s flesh, but if he sheds one drop of blood, or cuts one scruple too light or too heavy, then he ________ and all of his goods are __________ dies; confiscated
_______________ now calls Portia a “second Daniel” Gratiano
Gratiano now tells the Jew that he has him “on the ________” or at a disadvantage hip (also what the Jew had said of Antonio)
Shylock is no longer able to accept the money because he has refused it in _____________; he shall only have _________ and his _______ open court; justice; bond
Gratiano thanks ___________ for teaching him the word “Daniel” Shylock
Shylock tells Portia to give his forfeiture to the devil; he will await no further _____________ of the case determination
Venetian Law states that if a foreign resident directly or indirectly attempts to kill a citizen, _____________________________ shall receive half of the foreigner’s goods and the other half shall go to the state’s private treasury. In addition, the offender’s life lies in the hands of the ________. the person they plotted against; Duke
By proceeding with the enactment of his bond, Shylock has both __________ and ___________ contrived against the life of the defendant directly and indirectly
Portia then instructs Shylock to beg mercy to the __________ Duke
Gratiano begs to allow Shylock to leave to ___________ hang himself
However, since Shylock’s wealth is forfeit to the state, Shylock will not be able to afford the ________ cord (rope to hang himself)
Therefore, Shylock must be __________ at the state’s expense hanged
Does the Duke condemn Shylock to die? no
Why does the Duke show Shylock mercy and allow him to live? So that the merciless Jew can see the differences in spirit between the Duke and himself
Half of Shylock’s wealth will come to the state, however, _____________ may lead the Duke to drive the price down to a fine humbleness
Why does Shylock say to go ahead and kill him? If they take away his financial support then they take away his house, and they take away his life when they take away where he lives
“Nay, take my life and all; pardon not that: 375 You take my house when you do take the prop 376 That doth sustain my house; you take my life 377 When you do take the means whereby I live.” Shylock
Portia asks Antonio what _________ he can grant Shylock mercy
Gratiano responds, saying that the only mercy Antonio should grant Shylock is a _________ for free halter
Antonio asks that the court ____________ their hold on half of Shylock’s wealth relinquish
Antonio wants the other half of Shylock’s fortune to give to ___________ once the Jew dies Lorenzo
Antonio demands that Shylock become a ______________ Christian
Antonio’s final demand is that Shylock presently create a will that leaves all of his possessions to ____________ and ____________ when he dies Lorenzo and Jessica
The Duke says that Shylock must conform to all of Antonio’s demands, or he will repeal his previous sentence and condemn the Jew to __________ death
Portia tells Nerissa to draw a deed of __________- gift (will)
Shylock says that he is not __________, and pleads the court to allow him to go home. They may send the deed after him and he will _______ it well; sign
Does the Duke allow Shylock leave, provided that he sign the will when it is brought to him? yes
Gratiano: In Christening, Shylock shall have __________ godfathers. If Gratiano had been judge, Shylock would have had _______ more (12 judges to send him to death: 2 as God and Jesus and 10 as men) two; ten
If Gratiano had been judge, he would have brought Shylock to the ___________, not to the font (baptism podium) gallows
The Duke asks Portia to accompany him to ________ dinner
Why does Portia refuse the Duke’s invitation to dinner? she needs to make haste towards Padua
The Duke tells Antonio to ___________ Portia because he is much bound to him gratify (reward)
Bassanio offers Portia __________ ducats in return for her service 3,000
Antonio tells Portia that he and Bassanio stand indebted to her in both ___________ and ___________ love and service
Why does Portia consider herself well paid? one who satisfied is well paid. Portia is satisfied, therefore, she is well paid
Portia says she is not concerned with making _________ money
Portia asks Antonio and Bassanio to __________- her when they meet again know
Bassanio wants Portia to take something to ____________________ rather than as a fee remember them by
Portia asks for Bassanio’s __________ for his sake, and his ______________ for his love gloves; ring
“And you in love shall not deny me this.” Portia (about the ring)
Bassanio says the ring is of little _____________. He will not ___________ himself by giving it to her importance (trifle); shame
“I will have nothing else but only this; 433 And now methinks I have a mind to it. “ Portia
Portia will have nothing but the ________, and now she really wants it ring
Bassanio says the ring has ____________- value ceremonial
Bassanio offers to give her the dearest ring in Venice and find it out by _______________ proclamation (advertisement)
Bassanio taught Portia how to beg, and now he teaches her how a beggar should be ____________ answered
In Portia’s opinion, Bassanio is _________ in offers liberal
Portia says that if Bassanio’s wife is not ________, and knew how much she deserved the ring, his wife would not be mad at him forever for giving it to Portia mad
What excuse is given by many men to save their gifts? Their wife gave it to them
Does Antonio want Bassanio to give Portia the ring? yes
Antonio tells Bassanio to let Portia’s deserving of the ring and Antonio’s love withal be valued against Bassanio’s wife’s ______________- commandment
Bassanio is convinced and tells Gratiano to chase after Portia and Nerissa to ____________________ give them Bassanio’s ring
If possible, Gratiano is to bring Portia and Nerissa to _____________’s house Antonio’s
Bassanio and Antonio will leave for ____________ in early morning Belmont
Portia tells Nerissa to find out where ___________ lives and give him the deed to _________ Shylock; sign
Portia says that the deed will be welcome to ___________ Lorenzo
Portia says that they will leave tonight and get home a day before _______________ arrive their husbands
Gratiano tells Portia that upon further consideration, Bassanio has decided to….. give her the ring
Bassanio has also invited Portia to __________ dinner
Portia denies Bassanio’s request for dinner, but accepts the _____________ ring
Portia asks Gratiano to show ______________ (“my old youth”) where Shylock’s house is Nerissa
Portia expects their husbands to swear that they gave away their rings to ________ men
Portia and Nerissa will ___________- and ___________ their husbands upon confrontation over the matter of the rings outface and outswear
Nerissa decides that she, too, will attempt to retrieve her _________- from Gratiano, the ring in which she made him swear to keep forever ring