Othello Debate whether he is african american, they’re in venice italy, so he is not “American” research shows he is from north africa, Morrocco, fighting the Turks, he is most likely Christian. He payed for freedom, he marries Desdemona. Interracial marriage of 1600.
Desdemona Noble blood, her dad is a senator. She is symbolic of purity, but she actually is pure. She shows innocent, she truly loves Othello with all her heart. She is NOT evil, she stays the same throughout the whole play.
Iago Soldier who works with Othello, he lies, he is vicious, he wants to destroy Othello, he does destroy him through destroying the people around him and his values. They think he is honest, but no one else knows he is evil, it is irony.
Emilia She is married to Iago, she is loyal to desdemona, she loves her husband very much but he does not love her as much.
Cassio Man of ability, loyalty, and grace. He is a soldier but he does not have real experience, he has prostitutes and he has no feelings for desdemona regardless of what iago says, they do not have sex, it is a lie.
Brabantio Father of desdemona, nobleman and senator.
Roderigo He is in love with desdemona, he listens to iagos plan to get desdemona away from Othello.
Othello Dynamic character, he goes from unsane into insane.
Iago, desdemona Static characters, do not change throughout play.
Foils Emilia is the foil to desdemona
Foils Cassio is the foil to Iago
Othello conflict Othello vs himself. He has insecurities which allows him to believe Iago.
Conflicts Iago vs Othello and Iago vs Cassio
Dramatic irony A contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true.
Situational irony An event that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, readers, or audience.
Verbal irony Words are used to suggest the opposite of what is meant.
Destructive nature of jealousy Iago, Othello suspecting Desdemona’s unfaithfulness
Importance of honor reputation Cassio, Desdemona
Being an outsider Prejudice against Othello, skin color, he’s from Africa not Venice
Appearance vs reality Honest Iago, Desdemona and Cassio
Loyalty vs treachery Cassio and Desdemona, they are loyal to the end regardless of Othello’s accusations
Role of Emilia With husband and Desdemona
Motifs Animals, jealousy, sight and darkness, handkerchief, magic, evil and the devil.
Act one Venice
Act two-5 Cyprus
16th century Entire play covers only a couple days
Venice Luxury, culture, judicial system that works, powerful, wealth. Wanna be called a venicisian not a florentine. Desdemona is noble, Othello is not.
Cyprus Island near turkey, annexed by Venice in 1489, conquered by the Turks in 1571.
Moor Shakespeare’s language: equal to African, (foreigner) encompasses being black, darker than Italian or European, not negative or derogatory.
Ottoman, Ottomites Refer to the Turks
Ancient Pronounced “en-sin” military rank of stander bearer (Iago)
Cassio Lieutenant
Bianca A “hussie” that lives in Cyprus. Her favorite customer is Cassio, he constantly toys with over promises of marriage.
Brabanzio Desdemona’s father, also a senator. He is friends with Othello, he feels backstabbed when he finds out the secret about the marriage of his daughter.
Duke of Venice He is the authority in Venice, he has a large amount of respect for Othello, he later sends Othello to Cyprus.
Montano The governor of Cyprus prior to Othello, he is in ac t 2, while he waits for the Venetian ships.
Lodovico Brabanzio’s kinsmen, he is messenger from Venice to Cyprus. He first shows up in Act IV, explaining that Cassio has replaced Othello as governor.
Graziano Brabanzio’s kinsmen, joins Lodovico to Cyprus. In the final scene he releases that Desdemona’s father is dead.
Clown Othello’s servant, creates puns on the word “lie”
ACT ONE The act begins with Othello on a street, and he walks/breaks up an argument between Iago and Rodrigo. Iago learns about Othello and Desdemona’s love, then he tells Rodrigo about his hate/despise for Othello. Because Cassio is now the post of lieutenant, Iago pretends to serve under Othello, besides the fact he is still angry because of Cassio’s new position. This then leads to Iago setting up Roderigo against Othello and plotting ideas about how to ruin Othello and Desdemona’s relationship. Iago’s first plan is towards Desdemona’s father, Brabanzio. Iago creates the plan and then Iago and Roderigo carry it out, they say that they have been robbed to Desdemona’s father. Her father then does not believe them because he thinks Roderigo’s is trying to see his daughter. Roderigo and Iago then tell Desdemona’s father that Othello and Desdemona are having sex, which is a cold lie. Later Iago convinces Othello that Desdemona’s father will not hesitate to create a divorce between Othello and Desdemona. Then Cassio and his men tell Othello about a message from Cyprus, and then right as the men are about to leave Othello, Iago chooses to inform everyone about Othello’s marriage. This then lead to Desdemona’s father commanding an attack on Othello. Throughout the act Iago plots different situations to make Othello look like a terrible person. Roderigo turns multiple times to Iago and asks for help about Desdemona, this led to the creation of a deal between Iago and Roderigo. Iago makes it clear he is a villain in the beginning which shows his dramatic irony throughout the book was clearly set up, he is trying to depict himself as honest, which he is most certainly not.
ACT TWO This act takes place directly in Cyprus, and it begins with the governor of Cyprus watching a storm and as he and other men wait as the storm passes, it becomes unclear whether or not Othello’s ship has survived the terrible storm. A ship arrives, yet it is not carrying Othello rather Desdemona, Iago, Emilia, and Roderigo. After the arrival of the new ship, Desdemona is quick to learn that Othello’s ship has not yet arrived. This leads Iago to talk to Emilia and Desdemona, and this is the first time Iago shows his misogynistic side. Iago, has no respect for women, and this leads him to say things to both Desdemona and Emilia that are rude, and completely uncalled for. Later in the act, Cassio and Desdemona talk in private. Cassio then grabs Desdemona’s hand and Iago see’s the hand grabbing taking place and plans to use it against Cassio. Othello’s ship ends up arriving safely, and he kisses Desdemona in front of everyone, he is not scared to display his love to an audience. The men then help Othello unload the ship besides Iago and Rodrigo, they go to the castle and celebrate the drowning of the Turks. Inside the castle Iago proceeds tell Roderigo about how Desdemona will grow tired of Othello, and how Desdemona will want him in the future. But Iago makes it clear to Roderigo that Desdemona’s man in the future will most likely be Cassio not Roderigo. Iago lusts after Desdemona mostly because of his belief that Othello slept with his wife, Emilia, and Iago longs to get even with the Othello. Iago knows this will contradict his plan so instead he plans to ruin Othello. Desdemona shows no interest in cheating on her husband whether Iago sets her up, or not. She is faithful, pure, and completely loyal regardless of what Othello thinks, or Iago plans.
ACT THREE In this act Cassio sets up musicians to play outside Othello’s window, which results in Othello telling them to leave. Cassio truly wants to talk to Desdemona, which leads to Iago stepping in and trying to arrange conversation between Desdemona and Cassio. Emilia allows Cassio to enter, and tells him to wait for Desdemona. Iago, Othello, and a gentleman walk together at the citadel, then Othello gives Iago some letters to deliver. Later Desdemona, Emilia, and Cassio enter in the middle of a conversation, Desdemona just vows towards Cassio’s to do everything she can for Cassio, and then Othello and Iago enter. Cassio takes off, and tells Desdemona that he feels too uneasy to do himself any good. Othello saw a quick glimpse of Cassio, so he then asks Iago if it was intact Cassio, and Iago tells Othello that Cassio would not act like a guilty man when Othello walked in. Desdemona tells Othello he needs to forgive Cassio and give him back his position of lieutenant. Othello tells Desdemona that he will talk to Cassio, Desdemona plans a time for him to and Othello gets defensive. Desdemona attacks Othello for his rude responses, which leads Othello to tell Desdemona he wants space from her, and to be left alone. Othello and Iago are alone, and Iago plants in Othello’s head an affair between Cassio and Desdemona, and how Cassio was once where Othello was. Othello asks about Cassio’s honesty, and Iago refuses to answer. Iago causes Othello to begin to go insane, and Iago tells Othello to watch Desdemona when Cassio is present. Iago then switches, and tells Othello leave the situation alone completely. This leads to Othello planting in his own head that Desdemona does not love him, and he sees all these situations of Desdemona and Cassio unwinding in his head.
ACT FOUR In this act, Othello tries to pry answers from Emilia about Desdemona, but Emilia informs Othello about Desdemona’s loyalty. Emilia brings Desdemona to Othello, and tells Emilia to watch the door. Othello cries infront of Desdemona, and says how he knows she is unfaithful. Desdemona explains how she is fully faithful, and Othello says how she is a w****, which leads to Othello leaving the room, then Emilia comes in to talk to Desdemona. Desdemona tells Emilia to lay her wedding sheets on the bed for that night. Then Desdemona requests Emilia to bring in Iago and Desdemona tries to get answers from Iago about Othello’s behavior towards her. Emilia tells Iago that Othello must have been deceived by some villain, Iago then tells Desdemona that Othello is angry over business. Roderigo is furious and frustrated in his love, Iago then tells Roderigo that Cassio is taking Othello’s place, also that Othello is being sent to Africa but he is actually being sent back to Venice. Iago informs Roderigo that the only prevention of Desdemona’s exile with Othello would be to kill Cassio. Othello sends Desdemona to bed and tells her that he will be in bed shortly, and to tell Emilia to leave. Desdemona has a strong sense that Othello is going to try and kill her. She tells Emilia that if she dies before her, Emilia should use one of the wedding sheets for her own shroud. Desdemona sings a song, and tells Emilia how the song makes Desdemona think about cheating which leads her to ask Emilia if she would cheat on Iago, Emilia tells Desdemona should would not for something small, but the whole world is huge, and it would justify the cheating Desdemona and Emilia talk for a bit longer, then Desdemona goes to bed.
ACT FIVE- FINAL ACT In this act Cassio visits Bianca at the brothel, and Iago and Roderigo wait for him. Iago gives Roderigo a sword to kill Cassio, this leads to Iago leaving; and Roderigo tells Iago to stay close incase he needs help. Cassio comes outside and Roderigo stabs towards him but fails to actually stab him, due to Cassio’s armor. This leads Cassio to stabbing Roderigo. Iago comes to help and stabs Cassio in the leg. Cassio falls, and has no clue who stabbed him. Othello arrives in the commotion and hears Cassio screaming, Othello is quick to believe Iago has killed Cassio. Othello leaves the scene and returns to his bedroom to kill Desdemona. Lodovico and Graziano hear both Cassio and Roderigo’s cries. They believe the cries are a trap, Iago then comes back carrying a light. Iago acts as if he had no idea what was going on, and helps Cassio, then Iago stabs Roderigo. Graziano and Lodovico are still in complete dark, and are unsure about what Iago is doing, then all the men see each other and ask what is going on. Bianca comes outside and cries because she sees Cassio. Iago asks who did this to Cassio, but Cassio has no idea what took place. Iago plants in Cassio’s head it was Roderigo who tried to kill him. Cassio is carried away as well as dead Roderigo. Iago tells Emilia what happened, and Iago tells Emilia to tell Othello and Desdemona what just happened. In the next scene Othello stands over Desdemona as she sleeps and intends to kill her. He bends down to kiss her for the last time, she actually wakes up and he tells her to prepare to die. Desdemona then asks her husband why he he wants to kill her, and Othello tells her she is unfaithful with Cassio. Desdemona denies, and finds out about hurt Cassio, and then Othello becomes more mad at Desdemona. Othello smothers Desdemona 3 times. Emilia enters othello’s bedroom, and calls for help. Desdemona says her last words, tells Emilia she killed herself, then dies. Everyone finds out about the villain Iago, and Othello continues to go crazy, Iago stabs his wife, and she dies and tells Othello about Desdemona’s love before she fades away.
Allness Othello thinks that Desdemona is cheating because Iago lied to him and failed to look through Desdemona’s viewpoint
Map Iago projects a false map of Desdemona to Othello
Territory Map does not equal territory because Desdemona is loyal
projection Iago planting Desdemona’s unfaithfulness into Othello’s head
two valued-orientation Othello though people were either cheating or not
labeling Othello is the moor
unsanity othello fails to see Desdemona’s loyalty
perception 1.)Iago sets up a conversation with Cassio and othello believes the conversation is about Desdemona 2.) Roderigo thinks desdemona still loves him because he is desperate 3.) desdemona has never been betrayed because of her status
multi or infinite valued orientation desdemona and emilia
connotation love, honesty
denotation love, honesty
intensional jealousy insecurity
extensional lies
allness No one can know all about anything
map the words ideas, and images in our heads
territory reality and events outside of ourselves
projection projecting our mental maps on the territories around us
two valued orientation thinking either or, no in-between
labeling definitively identifying something or someone using the word “is”
unsanity insane people are out of touch with reality, they hear “unreal” voices and see “unreal” things
perception tend to see what we expect to see, we tend to see what suits our purposes at the time, we tend to see what our background prepares to see
multi or infinite orientation thinking in terms that or not either or
connotation what a word means in our own intensional world
denotation a words dictionary meaning
intensional pattern of events inside ourselves
extensional patterns of events outside ourselves