English Final

Characters Oedipus: son of Laius and Jocastakills his father and marries his motherfather tried to kill him when he was young, shepherd picked him up and raised him. He walked down the street and killed his father and was named king which means he married his mother. when he realized that the prophecy was fulfilled, he stab his eyes so i could not seefour children: Antigone, Ismene, Eteocles, and PolynicesAntigone: main character of the book Antigonedaughter of Oedipus, who killed his father (told in the prophecy)tries to bury her brother PolynicesEteocles and Polynices killed each other, Eteocles – was buriedEteocles: Opedius’ son, brother to Ismene, Polnices, and Antigone Oedipus, Antigone and Ismene’s father, had two sons, Eteocles and Polynices. Upon Oedipus’ death, it was agreed that each would take the throne from one year to the next. After the first year, however, Eteocles, the elder, refused to step down.Polynices: left unburied, to be eaten by local dogs and birdaccused of causing the destruction in the city, even though he died.Ismene: Ismene shows great loyalty to her father when she alerts him to the situation with Creon. She shows devotion once more when she returns with Antigone to Thebes. In Antigone, however, we see that Ismene’s loyalty only extends so far. Though she agrees morally with Antigone’s decision to bury Polyneices, she is afraid to risk her own lifeCreon: By the time Antigone rolls around, Creon, the play’s antagonist, has become an absolute tyrant. His hyper-logical mind refuses to recognize the bonds of familial love that tie Antigone to her brother Polyneices. He rejects the irrational laws of the gods in favor the rational laws of man.Teiresias: When Teiresias shambles on stage in Antigone, he once again gets accused of being a traitor. Ironically, this time it’s Creon that accuses the prophet, saying that Teiresias must have been bribed.The Chorus: In Antigone the Chorus is made up of a group of old Theban men. They’re probably old men because most of the young ones have just died in battle. Also, they represent in some way the deeply embedded patriarchal (male-dominated) society that Antigone defies. In Antigone the Chorus at times directly affects the action of the play. Though they at first seem to be totally on the side of their new king Creon, they begin to urge him to be more moderate. It’s at their pleading that Creon decides not to sentence Ismene to death along with her sister. The old men of Thebes also practically insist that Creon take Teiresias’s advice and free Antigone. Creon, of course, finally agrees to do this… but unfortunately it’s far too late. The main functions of the Chorus are to comment on the action of the play, give back story, and to connect the play to other myths. Sophocles also uses the Chorus to expound upon the play’s central themes. In Antigone we get choral odes on everything from the triumph of man over nature, to the dangers of pride, to the hazards of love.
Conflicts Transcript of Conflict in Antigone. Antigone Antigone and Creon’s dispute – The dispute between Antigone and Creon is due to Creon’s law against the burial of Polynices, Antigone’s brother. Polynices attacked Thebes, his hometown, after his brother refused to trade power as per their agreement.
Setting(s) in Front Of the Palace, Thebes, Ancient Greece. Antigone, like Oedipus the King, is set in that disaster-prone city-state known as Thebes. And what happens in Thebes does not stay in Thebes. Though most Greek playwrights were from Athens, their plays are hardly ever set there.
Festivals The Greek theatre history began with festivals honoring their gods. A god, Dionysus, was honored with a festival called by “City Dionysia”. In Athens, during this festival, men used to perform songs to welcome Dionysus. Plays were only presented at City Dionysia festival.
Three Unities unity of action – when the play contains only those actions that lead to its tragic outcomeunity of place – the requirement that the play have a single settingunity of time – the events depicted by the play take no longer than the actual duration of the play (or, at the most, a single day).
Main playwrights – Famous Greek Authors and Play writes.Sophocles; 497 – 405 BC.Aeschylus: Born Elefsina 525BC.Euripides : Born 480BC Halandi, Athens. Died 406BC.Aristophes: Born Athens 452 BC, Died A gina 385BC.
Catharsis the purging of emotions “of pity and fear” that audience members experience as they see the dramatic action unfold. “cleansing” “purification”
Hamartia the weakness or flaw of the protagonist; “miss the mark”
Hubris the tragic flaw of overwhelming pride (excessive); blinds you to see things how they are!
Tragic Hero shows the qualities of hamartia and hubris
cosmic irony – (irony of fate) occurs when God, fate, or some larger, uncontrollable force seems to be intentionally deceiving characters into believing they can escape their fate
dramatic irony emerges from a situation in which the audience knows more about the dramatic situation than a character does.
Characterization Characterization is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character. Characterization is revealed through direct characterization and indirect characterization. Direct Characterization tells the audience what the personality of the character is.
Protagonistic and antagonistic Protagonist, antagonist. A protagonist is the main character in a drama. Technically, there can only be one protagonist in a drama, though writers often use the word in reference to two or more central characters. The antagonist is the main character’s chief opponent
Setting the place or type of surroundings where something is positioned or where an event takes place.
Conflict (internal / external) – Internal Conflict is: ~NOT a visual or tangible opposition. ~a character dealing with his or her own mixed feelings or emotions. Example: A character may have to decide between right and wrong or between two solutions to a problem.struggle between a literary or dramatic character and an outside force such as nature or another character, which drives the dramatic action of the plot: external conflict between Macbeth and Macduff. 2. struggle between a person and an outside force: external conflict between parents and children.
Theme – In contemporary literary studies, a theme is the central topic a text treats. Themes can be divided into two categories: a work’s thematic concept is what readers “think the work is about” and its thematic statement being “what the work says about the subject”.
Tone- Tone, in written composition, is an attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience. Tone is generally conveyed through the choice of words or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject. … The tone can be formal, informal, serious, comic, sarcastic, sad, and cheerful or it may be any other existing attitudes.
Alliteration – the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.
Imagery – (five types of imagery) visual (sight), auditory (sound), tactile (feel), kinesthetic (movement), olfactory (smell), and gustatory (taste).
Symbol – Symbolism is the use of symbols to signify ideas and qualities by giving them symbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense. Symbolism can take different forms. Generally, it is an object representing another to give it an entirely different meaning that is much deeper and more significant.
Figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification) Simile Definition. A simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two different things. Unlike a metaphor, a simile draws resemblance with the help of the words “like” or “as”. Therefore, it is a direct comparison.Metaphor Definition. Metaphor is a figure of speech which makes an implicit, implied or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated but share some common characteristics. In other words, a resemblance of two contradictory or different objects is made based on a single or some common characteristics.Personification Definition. Personification is a figure of speech in which a thing, an idea or an animal is given human attributes. The non-human objects are portrayed in such a way that we feel they have the ability to act like human beings.

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