Merchant of Venice

Merchant of Venice
Shylock Shylock is presented in the play as a quite a stereotypical Jew from the Elizabethan context. As a greedy, selfish, merciless usurer, that was commonly hated and scored upon in the Elizabethan time. But Shakespeare presents him another side to these selfish, greedy Jews, one that is slightly pitiful, especially to the modern audience. In England, the Jew would’ve been represented as a catholic in the Elizabethan time, ones that were hated and oppressed also due to their religious beliefs.Jessica, consider him inhuman—bestial or demonic. However, their treatment of Shylock helps illuminate the prejudice and hypocrisy that lies behind many of their stated ideals of human brotherhood and Christian fellowship.In conclusion, Shylock is presented as a stereotypical Jew, but we see a glimpse of the injustice and another side to shylock as he defines himself by his money. We lose our respect of him and our empathy towards Shylock towards the end in the court scene, when we see him as a revenge driven mad-man. The purpose of Shylocks character in the romantic-comedy is to present an evil villain (but perhaps one with a bit more depth), Shakespeare also constantly uses him for a comedic effect for the Elizabethan audience (such as the end scene, where we see shylock stripped of all of his worth, his daughter, his money and his religion), whereas the modern audience has more compassion for the Jew who lost everything.When he is outsmarted by Portia in the play, it is in a comedic effect, as he has been outsmarted by a women, whom were seen as inferior at the time.
main speeches Act 1 scene 3, act 3 scene 1, Act 2 scene 8, act 2 scene 5 (Shylock warns Jessica)
“I hate him as he is a Christian” highlighting the social constructs and separation. Wants to get back at Antonio.Jews were persecuted and considered second class citizens. Shylock never takes sides towards the prejudices towards Jews.
“but since I am a dog, beware my fangs” – Act 3, Scene 3 Man v.s. Dog, Shylock is no longer human with the same human empathise, but only sees to hunt, find and kill like dogs, stoops down to an animal level just like his speech of “if you prick us do we not bleed” – natural instincts and reactions that are in their nature. “I am” – declarative phrase, pride, enjoying.Antonio has made him what he is, he has brought it upon himself, formed and sculpted Shylock into the revenge driven/thirsty animal he has become. He uses “thou” as in Antonio, blaming him for what he has become, but Antonio is once again the embodiment of the christian ‘evil’ that has constantly attacked and hurt Shylock, and so now it is his turn to hurt them. Using what Antonio once said to belittle Shylock to make himself stronger and a more dangerous opponent. “Dog” insult degrading, ownership of it now. “Fangs” – teeth – aggression. Extended metaphor Where audience empathy for Shylock is losing. “But” – retaliation, negative connotations, signifying a changeThe speech, however, is not a celebration of shared experience or even an invitation for the Venetians to acknowledge their enemy’s humanity. Instead of using reason to elevate himself above his Venetian tormenters, Shylock delivers a monologue that allows him to sink to their level: he will, he vows, behave as villainously as they haveThe speech is remarkable in that it summons a range of emotional responses to Shylock. At first, we doubtlessly sympathize with the Jew, whose right to fair and decent treatment has been so neglected by the Venetians that he must remind them that he has “hands, organs, dimensions, senses” similar to theirs (III.i.50). But Shylock’s pledge to behave as badly as they, and, moreover, to “better the instruction,” casts him in a less sympathetic light (III.i.61). While we understand his motivation, we cannot excuse the endless perpetuation of such villainy.
“You, that did void your rheum upon my beard and foot me as you spurn a stranger cur” “rheum” – phlegm. Constantly called dog throughout the play.
That doth sustain my house; you take my lifeWhen you do take the means whereby I live. Shylock, in his dismay, provides a powerful description of the connection between one’s life and one’s wealth. He claims that his property sustains his life, so taking his property is the same as taking his life. Similarly, for Shylock, his wealth sustains his property, so an individual takes his property by taking his wealth. Here, Shylock articulates an indirect but powerful link between his life and his wealth, a direct correspondence which is not surprising given Shylock’s generally greedy nature and concern with material possessions. Yet, after Shylock utters this statement, Portia immediately asks Antonio what “mercy” he might render Shylock, continuing to insert the notion of mercy into the courtroom even while simultaneously doling out arguably cruel, unmerciful punishments to Shylock
If it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge. It would allow Shylock to finally avenge the way that Antonio and others mistreat him (and other members of the Jewish community). By claiming that acts of vengeance would “feed” his revenge, Shylock implies that revenge is a natural human desire, like sexual desire or physical hunger — and it is sated not by anything technically “useful,” but only by inflicting more pain and spreading one’s bitterness to others.
“if you prick us, do we not bleed?” – Act 3 scene 1 Antonio is embodiment of the evil Christians who have just taken away his daughter. Shylocks monologue is very famous, and highlights the inequalities and injustices of the way that Jews were treated in Elizabethan time. Shylocks character is presented as the greedy, evil villain in this comedy, but also a product of his environment.Speech written in prose, showing loss of control, as he has lost everything Shylock asks several repetitive rhetorical questions, stating facts of human nature more than obvious questions, Highlighting Jews and Christians indifferences. Shylock is suggesting that revenge is as much a natural human response as bleeding if you were cut or die of poisoned, all things that are impossible not to do, as so it is in not only his, but everyone’s (Jew and Christian) human nature to demand and crave revenge. “if” is constantly repeated at the beginning of the rhetorical questions. in this context, it would be commonly feigned a question; but Shylock is not asking “if” these repercussions are true, he is stating them as a fact, not a suggestion. At monologue we can almost sympathize with Shylock. He is revealing a deep inner hurt that no doubt stems from the prejudice he’s experienced, due to his race and religion. Shylock believes this is the only recourse is revenge. Shylock is offered 3x back him money back, but he still demands his pound of flesh, this moves him into the realm of villainy.Shylock’s passionate defenses of himself and of his people, this message against stereotypes is tainted by its association with Shylock’s individual bloodthirsty personality. The play does not form a clear platform for crying out against anti-Semitism, although it certainly depicts the prejudice that confronts a people of individuals, which perhaps unfortunately includes Shylock.
The villainy you teach me I will execute, and it shall go hard, but I will better the instruction he claims that he has learned his lust for greed and revenge from the Christian individuals who have so mistreated him. He suggests that his own behavior is a reaction to the intolerance which he has faced and which he is currently confronting. He alludes to the fact that Venice’s current social currents have been prefaced by prior stigmatization and discrimination, and this perspective certainly makes him a more complicated and sympathetic character than he may have initially appeared to be
“oh my daughter, oh my ducats, oh my daughter” – Act 2 scene 8 Money – we see that he puts the loss of his money on the same level as the loss of him only daughter. We can see this in the statement made by shylock “oh my daughter, oh my ducats, oh my daughter” by placing his daughter next to the ducats it highlights his greed and makes him less attractive as a sympathetic character to the audience. But as many might see him as greedy and shallow for caring for his money more than for his only daughter; we see that money is all he is, he puts his own self-worth with his money. But when Jessica runs away (the only person who he loves and cares for) with the money (what he defines himself by) we see that almost all of his self-worth is stripped away from him, rousing a sympathetic response from the audience.
“mocked at my gains, scorned at my nations, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends”. Hard assonance + monosyllable – staccato: Shakespeare separates the sentence using commas in the statement “mocked at my gains, scorned at my nations, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends”. By doing this, he highlights Shylocks hatred for Christians and especially Antonio (as Antonio is the embodiment of the devilish Christian to Shylock), with the help of commas he separates up the statements, further displaying his contempt/bitterness towards Christians and all that they have done to torture him. Assonance + alliteration “thwarted”, “scored”, “cooled”. This makes the passage more memorable and highlights his hate for Christians, but also highlighting how Christians feel about Jews. He uses “my” to highlight the pain that they have inflicted on him. “my” is also a monosyllable and is said in a staccato making it even more harsh, blunt and highlighting how angry he is. Hatred and anger words: bitterness, antagonized, contempt, hatred, furious, outraged, indignant, loathing, prejudice, disgust.
You call me misbeliever, cut-throat dog,And spit upon my Jewish gaberdine, Shylock exposes the unfortunate contradiction that Venetians mistreat the individuals whom they need, the money-lenders who fulfill an essential and respectable function in society. The injustices he lists here also serve to make Shylock a more complex character — one who is portrayed as a caricatural villain, but who has possibly been made that way by the prejudice of a “Christian” society.Prejudice
Development of character Shylock is presented as the evil obstacle in the play, that will be overcome by the lovers of the romantic-comedy. Shakespeare has given Shylock a multi-dimensional character, where we are meant to sympathize with him in parts, and loathe the character in others. We start to pity the Shylock when has just lost his daughter and his ducats. We see his most beloved and treasured things taken away from him. He holds onto Jessica like he holds onto his ducats and that is why he lost both. We lose our sympathy for Shylock in the court scene where he relentlessly demands revenge and the life of Antonio. Although we might’ve earlier seen him as a respectable man earlier on in the play, who has simply been mistreated, we find our opinion of his character change, as a respectable man would have mercy on those who have wronged him, and gone away with something that was beneficial for both. But we see his revenge overpowering him in the court scene, and we turn against him and his overpowered, unstable need/desire for revenge.Gratiano mocks Shylock, when the tables turn by repeating his saying “learned judge” – comedic effect.
“I have much ado to know myself” – Act 1 Scene 1 He is confused and almost isolated. foreign to himself. Melancholy, but doesn’t know why.
“I should stay with the Jew my master who -Gob bless my mark! – is a kind of devil ” – act 2 scene 2 Comedic effect.
Antonio Good and generous man. Passive role in the play. Mainly- generosity to friend, Hatred towards Jew (embodiment of the prejudice towards Jews)Many critics argue that Antonio harbors an unrequited erotic desire for Bassanio. In contrast to the benevolence that he shows others,
“The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose” Antonio does not restrain himself from denigrating Shylock — even as “the devil.” Of course, Antonio is here providing a general saying, but the thinly veiled implication is that Shylock is functioning as the devilish figure in this interaction. He is emphasizes the extent to which the Jewish and Christian communities in this play isolate themselves from each other theologically. The devil is the common enemy of both religious traditions, but in this colloquial saying, Antonio is associating Shylock with the devil.
. “let me have judgement and the jew his will” – court scene • Language. Metaphor. Antonio speech. Hes referring to nature, saying its Shylocks nature to have no mercy and be cruel. All metaphors. Shylock is the “wolf”, he is strong, and takes the weak (the lamb), and there is no reason for it. Impossible feats against nature, his nature ot be cruel and predatory. All the time still being mean to Shylock. • Structure – In iambic pentameter; but no rime – in blank verse. Made peace, has thought it through; but he isn’t happy, no upbeat, so no rhyme, giving a somber tone. • Rhetorical question – “I pray you, think you question the jew”, answers in the rest of it. • Repetition (anaphora) – emphasizing, giving more guilt to Bassanio. – “You may as well” Pronoun (direct address), modal word (possibility) • Caesura – usually means – pause, thought, lack of confidence. (little in the beginning more confident, acceptance, peace). “- His Jewish heart. Therefor”, simple sentence, declarative, He knows everything. Doesn’t use casuras for Shylock (unforgiving, 2 sided, double sided); but more breaking in Bassanio (see a softer character)• Uses negative words when talking to Bassanio. “no”, brief plain, plosive, still a hint bitterness. • “Judgement” – reference to God. Has he made peace with his fate?
“Life itself, my wife and all the world are not esteemed above thy life” Ironically its Antonio who gives away the ring
“The duke cannot deny the course of law” – Act 3 scene 3 Antonio doesn’t suggest the idea of going to the duke and asking to forfeit/refute the bond. This shows that he is a more composed character that is still thinking logically and will not go so low as to swoop behind the law. Still has self respect. Not desperate. This shows that Antonio has already thought of talking to the duke to ask for exemption, but thought it did not work. He is still talking in iambic pentameter, showing that he is quite calm and will (if he has to) respect the bond he made with Shylock. It also shows that he is calm enough to still have faith in Bassanio to come and help. Peripeteia – This is when the hero (who is usually too arrogant) realizes his errors after a downfall, humbling him and realising that he is not invincible, making him more appealing to the audience, making him the hero. Shylock never does this, placing him into the villain role that he has.
“Hear me yet, good Shylock” – Act 3 scene 3 Antonio doesn’t speak much in the exchange, different from other conversations, shows the shift in power as Shylock is the one to speak. Only short begging sentences, trying to get into Shylock’s good graces. “Good” only good thing he has ever said to shylock, because he realises that that is the only way he can survive it. Before he called him things like “the devil” or “dog”. He hasn’t started to beg, so he doesn’t lose his dignity, accepts it will a little bit of pride – leads to audience respecting him more. “Hear me yet” Antonio has to ask to speak, showing his lack of power, leading to the audience empathise with the character.Submissive, begging language.
I hold the world but as the world, Gratiano— A stage, where every man must play a part; And mine a sad one. According to this personal perspective, every individual “must play a part”; some must win, some must lose. The world is “but as the world,” a bland reality that lacks imaginative possibilities, and, every man has “a part.” Antonio is an individual, but he is also interpreted in association with other parts and is made up of a combination of various social, racial, ethnic, and religious categories. Tensions between these categories will develop as the play continues
Portia -Poses as a “young doctor from Rome”-Context – Related to this time period. Why he creates a character like Portia in that time period. (upper class, confident, scholar, Power, Control, treasure, love, trusting more confident with Nerissa to keep up her façade, open, understanding, intelligent) – Uses and manipulates language to her advantage (words/Techniques)”Renaissance Women”In many ways, only in front of everyone else. Sticks to the rules and doesn’t disobey her father’s rules, and all the things she does is for Bassanio. Well educated and sophisticated, shows she cares about different races. Lead by emotion, not reason, but very good at manipulating peoples reasoning and emotions. No – she is Whitty when she wants to be, knows when she can bend them, but doesn’t break them. Most modern girls would find her situation intolerable a wealthy heiress, having to obey her deceased fathers commands. Conforms to the rules of society Yes – follows her father’s rules. She never breaks them, only bends them in her favor. No – She goes as a lawyer, women not allowed to; but still disguised as a man. Uses disguise as power Yes – uses confidence, becoming a man makes her an equal, her perspective is that men are more powerful than men. But she is still quite powerful even without being a man, but she also uses her power to disguise herself. Shows men the folly of their mistake Shows them their flaw, uses their exact rules to go against them. She uses Shylock to show their blinded weaknesses, showing her as a perfect, and the men as more inferior Is less prejudice than the other characters In some ways she is, she talks to Jessica and doesn’t treat her differently. But she only treats her like that one she is converted. No- She prejudice towards the black Moroccan; but she is still polite in his presents. Portia is lead by emotion and not reason. She is usually lead by reason, but a lot more emotional, and bends a lot for Bassanio, and she is a lot more reasonable than her make counterpart. At the beginning of the play, introduction of Portia: Repetition of “choice” – reinforcing her confinement. Repetition of negative words such as “nor, Not, none”. She much rely on someone else to lead herself. b) Beginning, middle end. Show her at different parts at these parts.Independent and brave, yet controlled by the patriarchal society her father has left for her. Constricted by society.
Act 3 scene 2, “pray you tarry, pause a day” (insecure, weakness, humility (tell him to take his time))., Speech with Nerissa “my little body is a weary of this great world ” – ironic because can only reach full potential by being a man. Gives all to Bassanio “unlearend, undisiplined, unschooled”
“The quality of mercy is not strainedit droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven””Should see salvation” Even as she follows the standard procedure of asking Shylock for mercy, Portia reveals her skills by appealing to his methodical mind. Her argument draws on a careful process of reasoning rather than emotion. She states first that the gift of forgiving the bond would benefit Shylock, and second, that it would elevate Shylock to a godlike status. Lastly, Portia warns Shylock that his quest for justice without mercy may result in his own damnation. Although well-measured and well-reasoned, Portia’s speech nonetheless casts mercy as a polarizing issue between Judaism and Christianity. Her frequent references to the divine are appeals to a clearly Christian God, and mercy emerges as a marker of Christianity. Antagonistic relationships versus social cohabitation. Although it seems as if Portia is offering an appeal, in retrospect her speech becomes an ultimatum, a final chance for Shylock to save himself before Portia crushes his legal arguments.”strained” – can’t force Shylock to be merciful.
“Which WHEN you part from, lose, or give away” Use of triplet again. “When” – she understands the undoings of men. Foreshadowing. She has made herself very fragile. – unconditional
“Quality of mercy” As a divine blessing, which benefits both the man who shows mercy and the man who recieves it. Displaying her knowledge. Last ultimatum. Only one that adjusts her arguement, so that it matches Shylocks.
“the will of a living daughter (should be) curbed by the will of a dead father” Father still dictates her from his cornerstone. Highlighting the “living” and “dead” – showing the silliness of it all.
“And this same myselfAre yours, my lord” “Unlesson’d girl, unschool’d, unpractis’d” “Her lord, her governer, her king” TRIPLETS Devoting herslef to Bassanio, making her more vulnerable. Innocent, giving herself, confirming virginity, highlighting her purity. Devoting herself to him, giving complete control, duty – shift in power. Look at use of pronoun and effect. The Elisabethans would’ve admired her modesty.
“And turn to mincing steps into a manly stride”-Act 3, Scene 4 In Iambic pentameter to show she has thought of the freedoms of a man before many times, and also talks for a long time, wandering imagination. “Stride” – confident, important, freed and accepted as an equal or higher. “Mincing step” – dainty, how girls walk, timid, ignored, precautions. Contrasting between “mincing” and “stride”, showing the different roles and levels of power. The women are always left a step behind. “Manly” is paired with “stride” showing that they are not two different words, but one, being a man is to be accepted, respected and have a voice.
Contrast of shylock and Portia: Shylock- Selfish, angered, bitter Portia – Selfless, kind, mercifulAn antithesis/juxtaposes shylocks character. She can choose her fate, whereas Shylock doesn’t, has the choice, but accepted into it because of his clouded judgement.
“I will not be married to a sponge” Act 1, scene 2 “is it not hard, Nerissa, that I cannot choose one, nor refuse none?” Portia – (introduction of strong character) This shows her strong character. Before she was just seen as Beautiful and rich, but now we see her as witty, brilliant and sharp sarcastic intelligence. Many women would’ve admired her for her strong character and her daring accusations of her suitors. She calls on each of the suitors calling on their flaws, but also stereotypical characteristics of men from those countries. This shows the comedic side to the play, and maybe even foreshadows Portia’s witty and sharp intellect for later when she outwits the crafty Shylock.
“When this ring parts form this finger, then parts life from hence” “When”- showing that she knows the downfalls of men, foreshadowing a darker turn. When Jessica and Lorenzo, Salerio enter the scene, it disrupts the perfect harmonious atmosphere, telling them of what has happened to Antonio – “steals the color from Bassanio’s cheek” -displaying how much he cares for him. Volta in the passage – changing point
Bassanio Careless with money. Starts with him only wanting Portia for selfish reasons. Change perception of him throughout book. Well developed character (more than Antonio) Scholar and Soldier – respected, well educated, renaissance manHigh social status (good name) – we know as he is a possible suitor for Portiahis character is deeply flawed. At best clueless, and at worst consciously selfish and manipulative, he always manages to avoid earning his own way: first, he exploits the generosity of his friend Antonio, and then he freely passes on the money and gifts that Portia gives him.
Act 1 scene 1 (fair Portia), act 2 scene 7 (choosing caskets), Act 1 scene 3 (market scene), “so may the outwards shows be least themselves (metaphor for the outside identity of characters (shylock isn’t accepted as a character because of being a jew, Portia isn’t shown full potential until tuning into a man))
“something too prodigal” – act 1 scene 1 – description of himShylock uses it again act 2 scene 5 (“To go in hate, to feed upon / the prodigal son”) Reference to bible – the prodigal son, Bassanio is a youthful hopeful son, and Antonio, the father that cares greatly for him, giving him anything he wants, no matter how many times he fails him. Bassanio is extra sad because he knows that Bassanio is looking to marry, and knows that their close (slightly gay) friendship might be coming to an end- this is why he starts off so sad, as grieving for the inevitable end to a friendship (or what he might’ve hope more than a friendship)
“In Belmont is a lady richly left; and she is fair, and, fairer” – act 1 scene 2 Presenting Antonio as shallow, as he is only describing her outer appearance. More accepted then than now. ceasure highlighting her beauty. Double meaning. Fair as in in law (foreshadowing?). Fair – as in pretty
“and her sunny locks” – “Hang on her temple like a golden fleece” “sunny locks” – comparing her to nature and beauty, kind, shines through dark days – will also help him lighten up his darkest days, by helping him out of debt. (money seen as golden and sunny – Shallow intentions?) “golden fleece” – Use of mythology and religion – a diamond in the rough. Everyone is seaking the fleece- an upmost prize. “temple” – worshiping her
Respect to others He respects others- invites Shylock to dine with them, putting Shylock on the same level as him, breaking the socially constructed barrier of Christians being superior to Jews. (act 1 scene 3)He is gracious to l. Gobbo, and gives him the job, others might’ve laughed and made fun of him, showing compassion. (act 2, scene 2)
“Be fortunate” – Act 1 scene 2 Ambiguos use of word. Lucky to her such a pretty lady, or manage to bump into such a cash load. Hiding true greed and hidden intesion? With the history of being careless with money OR actually lucky to find her and fall in love?!
Choosing the correct casket, Act 3 scene 2″Shall get as much as he deserves” in Act 2 scene 7&9, the morrocan man and Prince of Arragon try to find the right casket. This highlights the downfall of men, as they think that they warent more than they deserve (the gold and silver they don’t deserve). After this, it shows Bassanio as better and kinder, as he chooses the one casket where he thinks he doesn’t deserve as much, showing he is humble.Music was playing in the background to make it magical – like a fairy tale.
Jessica She was embarrassed of being dressed up like a boy – elisabethan women would never be seen like this. (comedic effect – men were dressed up as women, dressed up as men) -Act 2 scene 6
But love is blind, and lovers cannot seeThe pretty follies that themselves commit. Jessica is disguised as a boy, and she claims she is grateful that Lorenzo does not see her in such a strange costume. During this conversation, she also more abstractly comments that “love is blind” — a statement that is not literally true in Belmont, where Portia has certainly noticed her suitors’ appearances and ethnicities (although it could be argued that this is because she doesn’t truly love them). Yet, lovers are, indeed, often unaware of “pretty follies that themselves commit.” In this very play we will observe several instances where lovers are unaware of the tricks and devices which their lover plays on them.
“stones” When Shylock raves about the “stones” that Jessica has stolen from him, part of the joke is that in the Renaissance “stones” was a slang word for the testicles. And indeed Shylock’s only child’s renouncing her father, eloping, and converting to Christianity is symbolically tantamount to castrating him, cutting off his family name.
“what heinous sin…… to be ashamed to be my fathers child” – act 2 scene 3
“House is hell” – Act 2 scene 3 Serves to increase our dislike for Shylock.
Salarino & Salanio Innocent bystandard, good friends of Antonio and Bassanio. They recap what has happened by gossiping.
“the carcasses of many a tall ship lie buried” – Salarino Act 3 scene 1 Use of Carcasses:Foreshadow Antonios near death experience, due to the “tall ship lie buried” in the court scene.The death of the sailors on the boat.
They are as sick that surfeit with too much, as they that starve with nothing. she gives this adage and reminder that too much material wealth can be as unfortunate as too little. This also serves as a warning against greed; the lust to accumulate more wealth and possessions can be as damaging as these possessions themselves, as the character Skylock will demonstrate through his avarice. With these blunt words, Nerissa seems to offer her lady a similar sort of “economic” friendship as Antonio’s friends have provided him.(theme: money, greed)
Importance of loyalty Loyalty will save you, Shylock had no one loyal to him (Jessica ran away and Lorenzo took to another boss). With no one loyal to him, Shylock collapses and failes at his quest to get revenge, he looses everything, and we see him in the ending scene stripped from everything that he is. We see that Bassanio and Antonio are loyal to one another and so is Portia, they end up happy together, gaining everything. There is a contrast here, where Shylock has no one loyal to him and he ends up with nothing, and then Bassanio who has loyalties and gets everything. Wealth, a wife, friendship. This shows the importance of loyalty, as without it, then you will collapse.
Themes Themes-Love is more important than money (Jessica marries off to someone not that rich- happy, leaving father, that is rich but has no love) -Mercy is more important than revenge -(Shylock wants revenge, and in the end gets nothing. Antonio has mercy, and gets everything-Self interest over love
Context Look at
Theme of religion “I hate him for he is a Christian” (Shylock on Antonio: act 1 scene 3)
Theme of Money All about money. Portia – has to overcome the barrier to find a proper husband of money. Money to bring people together – Portai and Bassanio; or break someone apart – Shylock. Shylock – He places money on the same level as the loss of his daughter. But in the end, he would rather revenge than 3000 ducats or more. He defines himself by money also.