Macbeth Act 4

Reason Macbeth went to weird sisters To see apparitions of future
Witches “Double double, toil and trouble; fire burn and cauldron bubble.”
Animals mentioned in Scene 1 Fox, whale, frog, snake, cat, hedgehog, lizard, dog, owl, wolf, shark, worm, etc.
1st apparition Head of warrior, warns Macbeth of Macduff’s revenge.
2nd apparition Blood-covered child, Macbeth can’t be killed by anyone “of woman born.”
3rd apparition Child wearing crown, holding tree, promises Macbeth can’t be vanquished in battle until Birnam Wood uproots and comes to Dunsinane Hill (his castle).
Message of 3 Apparitions to Macbeth 1) Beware of Macduff, 2) No one of woman born would harm him, 3) Macbeth would not be vanquished until Birnam Wood uprooted and came to his castle.
Result of Macbeth asking about Banquo’s sons Saw procession of Banquo’s heirs, 8 kings and last one with looking glass.
Banquo’s issue He has many heirs and they would rule until the end of time.
Macbeth “I’ll make assurance double sure”
Crime Macduff is accused of by Macbeth Treason
Reason Malcolm suspects Macduff of treachery Thinks Macduff is trying to kill him.
Reason Macduff blames himself for death of his family He wasn’t there to protect them.
Four apparitions called up by the witches Soldier, bloody child, crowned child holding a tree, 8 kings
Reason Macbeth is oblivious to hidden meanings in witches’ prophecies He is insane and his ambition is his tragic flaw.
Occurrence in Scene I that disturbs Macbeth Banquo’s ghost
Reason last king carries looking glass To show Macbeth many more heirs to come.
Reason Macbeth decides to murder Macduff’s family To get revenge on Macduff and be sure his family suffered.
Macduff flees to England Macbeth announces revenge on Macduff’s family
How Macbeth’s decision to murder Macduff’s family differs from previous murders He has resorted to killing women and children.
Lady Macbeth’s accusation against Macduff Feels he has acted dishonestly, calls him a traitor.
Lady Macduff’s character Insane, angry, harsh, rude.
Macduff’s son’s character Sassy, defensive, loving, practical, loyal to Macduff.
Macduff’s son “world is full of dishonest people,” reference to biblical story
How exchange between Lady Macduff and Macduff’s son affects audience’s response to killing Contrast between comedy and tragedy
Murder of Macduff’s family Son murdered, wife chased by murderers (killed).
Macduff “At one fell swoop”
How Malcolm describes himself to Macduff Tyrant, worse than Macbeth.
Malcolm to Macduff Says Malcolm would be great tyrant and worse than Macbeth, tries to gain Macduff’s loyalty through reverse psychology.
Reason Malcolm misrepresents himself to Macduff He wants to gain Macduff’s loyalty.
Reason Malcolm would be a strong Scottish leader Knows flaws of Macbeth, wants revenge for the murder of his family.
Malcolm’s promises as tyrant 1) Sexual abuse of all women, 2) Take land and houses of nobility, 3) Start conflicts with other nations.
Reason Malcolm gains Macduff’s loyalty Still hates Macbeth.
How Ross’s behavior in Scene 3 builds up the intensity Gradually tells Macduff of slaughter of his family, slow development leading up to reveal of murder.
Result of Ross telling Macduff about his family’s murder Macduff wants revenge.
Aid of King Edward given to Malcolm for rebellion Siward and 10,000 soldiers
What Malcolm says to help Macduff control his grief and redirect anger “Turn your grief into anger”