Reasons Shakespeare is hard Unfamiliar or archaic language.Funky sentence construction.Normal english- subject, verb, object/description (I like OJ)Shakespeare- whatever he wants so he can do iambic pentameter.Figurative language.
Weather analogy in act 1 scene 1 a fight
Duncan First king of Scottland in the story
Macdonwald Man who rebels against Duncan and hires mercenaries
Sweno King of Norway
Surprise in act 1 scene 2 the thane of cawdor joined the rebels
Malcolm The king’s sonkidnapped and rescued by Macbeth at the beginningeventually king of Scottland after Macbeth’s death
Etymology the study of word meanings and origins
Wierd Not just unusualassociated with the concept of fate or supernatural powers
Irony A difference between expectation and realitythree categories:Situationaldramaticverbal
Situational irony your intentions bring about something differentIf you always walk on the right side of the road, and the one day you walk on the left side you get hit by a car
Dramatic irony When the audience knows something but the characters don’t
Verbal irony When there is a difference between the literal meaning and the intended one. Sarcasm falls under this category
Rapt Carried awayengrossedthe act of carrying offEx: The birds that are predators that carry off their prey are raptorsrelated to the word “rape” to take away forcefully
Banquo A noble but not a thaneMacbeth’s friend that usually fights with himreceived a prophecy that his descendants would be kings of Scotlandkilled by murderers hired by Macbeth to prevent his descendants from taking the throne
The fat lady (sailors wife) refused to give the witch chestnuts so the witch punished her husband by preventing him from sleeping for 81 weeks
Bubbles like the witchesnothing really therecan fascinate you but cannot help youshiny but empty/pop
Typical plot structure 1. Exposition; background info is introduced2a. problem; character stumbles on a central problem2b. Rising action; things become more complicated3. Climax; main internal and external conflicts solved4. Falling action; author sorts out all of the little details and loose ends5. Resolution; author lets you know that the status of the characters has more or less returned to “normal” but with changes
What metaphor does Duncan use to describe his plans for Macbeth and Banquo? He uses the metaphor of planting a tree. He is planting Macbeth and Banquo, turning them from sprouts to trees
How do Macbeth and Banquo react to Duncan’s words about him planting them? They are flattered but a little guarded. Banquo is more guarded than Macbeth, and doesn’t quite believe it
Up until line 43 of act 1 scene 4, when Duncan says “we will establish our estate upon…” What announcement does Macbeth probably think Duncan is about to make? That Make will be made King/prince because before this line Duncan is praising Macbeth so much
What announcement does Duncan actually make in line 43 of act 1 scene 4? Malcolm will become the prince of cumberland, and the air to the throne.
Macbeth speaks aside from lines 55-60 of act 1 scene 4. How do these lines relate to and develop Macbeth’s internal conflict? He was confused about why he wasn’t appointed prince because the witches told him he would be king. He decided that because the witches were right so far, the path he had to take was to kill Duncan, but he was still ashamed and confused about what he was going to do
While Macbeth says his aside, Duncan and Banquo are talking about Macbeth, what does Duncan think of Macbeth’s actions? Duncan is assured that Macbeth is as amazing as everyone says he is and is content with his decision to make him the thane of cawdor
Macbeth’s internal conflict according to Lady Macbeth He wants the throne but does not want to do what is necessary to get it
Pugnacious Quick and ready to fightfeisty
Suborned Secretly bribed to commit a crime
How Lady Macbeth helped kill Duncan She convinced Macbeth to do itshe drugged Duncan’s servants so that they would fall asleep and Macbeth could sneak in and kill Duncan
Why Lady Macbeth couldn’t kill Duncan He looked too much like her father
Macbeth’s tactical mistake did Macbeth make in act 2 scene 3? he killed Duncan’s guards so that they would not be able to speak about Duncan’s death
Character foils When you have 2 characters that are similar up to a point, and then they break apart and become different from each other. This allows the reader/viewer to see the differences in character more clearlyroot: Metallic foil used to set off a gemstone
How does Banquo feel about Macbeth after Duncan is killed? Banquo is skepticalhe thinks Macbeth cheated to get his positionhe has to feel loyal to Macbeth but he might feel more loyal to Duncan
How does Banquo feel about his own prophecy? He is cautiously optimistic that it will come trueMacbeth did not have the hope that without intervention, his prophecy would still come true but Banquo does have hope
Why was Macbeth suspicious of Banquo? He sees that he is a good person and his children our going to be kings in the future.He talks about how noble he is and compares him to Julius Caeser while he compares himself to Mark AntonyBanquo is fearless and smartBanquo is the only person who can bring Macbeth downBanquo’s decisions will always be smarter, and that combined with his bravery scares Macbeth
What does Macbeth make the murderers believe about Banquo? Banquo is their enemy and has been bad for them in the pastHe is trying to offset his guilt and by saying it enough times that he convinces himself
1st apparition Armed headtells Macbeth to beware MacduffMacbeth interprets it as he has to kill MacduffIt could be interpreted as only dissent will come from him and he should make him an allyor because of the apparitions intervention he will go after him and get hurt
2nd apparition bloody childtells Macbeth to be bloody bold and resolute because no man born of woman can kill himMacbeth interprets it as he does not need to kill Macduff but he should anyway, just in case.It could be interpreted as no one is a threat so there is no reason for Macbeth to kill anyone elseor if he kills everyone they will not be a threat so he should keep killing everyone who he finds suspicious
3rd apparition a child crowned with a treeHe should be brave and proud and not worry about anyone because he will reign until birnam wood comes to dunsinane hillMacbeth takes this to mean that he does not need to worry about anything he has done and he can be as brutal and tyrannical as he wants because no one can do anything about it It could be interpreted as he will reign until something crazy happens, but something crazy will happen
Tragedy a sad play following the Greek archetype
Tragic hero A protagonist who starts in a high position and is an “everyman”, experiences a reverse in fortune and “falls”, because of the hero’s “fatal flaw”
Hamartia Greek fatal flaw; often hubris
Hubris Excessive pride or self confidence
Catharsis fear and pity followed by relief
symbolism of blood contaminationMacbeths “hand-washing of blood” as a traitor has made Scotland bloodyThanes become “traitors”
Traitors Macbeth rose to power as a traitorThanes are confused because if they are traitors to a traitor, what are they?Fair is foul and foul is fair
Malcolm’s test for Macduff he describes himself as greedy, lustful and uncontrollable, he would be a worse king than MacbethMacduff changes his mind about Malcolm which means that he is loyal to Scotland because if he was really loyal to Macbeth he would want Malcolm to come anyway.
What does Lady Macbeth do while she’s sleeping? She takes out paper, folds it, writes on it, reads it, and seals it up (writes letters)She carries a candleShe mimics washing her handsShe repeats things she has said to Macbeth about the murders they committedThen she goes straight back to sleep
How does Malcolm defend killing Macbeth? He convinces everyone that Macbeth is a tyrant and it is for the good of Scotland, and they would not be traitors
Equivocation The concept of saying something with the intent to be technically true but misleading
Interpretations of tomorrow tomorrow tomorrow speech 1. He realized he is responsible for what is happening2. He is putting it off; blowing off his rolesignificant for whether or not he is a tragic hero
first set of prophecies 1. Thane of Glamis2. Thane of Cawdor3. King hereafter
What does Lady Macbeth mean by “unsex me here”? she’s not asking to be turned into a manshe is asking to have mercy and compassion taken out and replaced with ruthlessness”milk for gall”
What does Macbeth respond to Macduff when he is questioned on why he killed the guards before they could question them? his feelings outran his reason
Thane Warrior and Military position
Earl Landowning noble
Why doesn’t Macduff come to Macbeth’s banquet? He was suspicious of Macbeth since Macbeth killed the guards directly after Duncan’s death
How does Macbeth respond to the servant when he is told that the forest is moving? If you are wrong I will hang you from a tree and starve youIf I am wrong you can do the same to me (if Macbeth is wrong he will die anyway)
What is Lady Macduffs’ response to her husband running away? She is angry because she thought that if he left them there on their own he must be a traitor. If he had a good reason for leaving, he should have brought his family with him.