Freshman Comp 2 Hamlet Final

What are the 3 parts or movements in the play? 1. Ghost Story2. Detective Story3. Revenge Story
How did Elizabethans view Gertrude’s marriage to Claudius? As incestuous (a sin)
What is the climax of the ghost story? Ghost appears to Hamlet on the balcony and beckons him to go with him
How did King Hamlet die, according to the ghost? Murder – killed by Hamlet’s uncle Claudius
What question does Hamlet face after the ghost scene? Who was the ghost? Was it a spirit sent from hell or his father?
Why did Hamlet feign (pretend) madness? To distance himself from others – he has to be able to think about what he had seen and heard. And he didn’t want Marcellus and Horatio to talk
What does the king want Rosencrantz and Gildenstern to do? To find out why he’s pretending to be mad
How did Hamlet use the traveling actors to help him unravel the mystery? They put on a play to reveal if the ghost told the truth. Hamlet will watch Claudius to see how he reacts to the play to see if he’s guilty
What is Claudius’s reaction to The Mousetrap? What is another title of this play? He watched the play twice – first time he watched it and then the second time he ran away, revealing his guilt.Another name: The Murder of Gonzago
Why does Claudius send Hamlet to England? Why does the plan fail? He sends Hamlet to England to kill himIt fails because Hamlet discovers the letters for his death and changes them, also the pirates come
Why is Laertes so easily used by Claudius? Because of his grief and anger
How is Claudius using Laertes (what is Claudius’s new plan)? To kill Hamlet with a poisoned sword; but it failed, Hamlet would die from poison in his drink (?)
How does Gertrude die? She drinks from the poisoned cup (that Hamlet was supposed to drink from)
What is Hamlet’s last request of Horatio? Report him (Hamlet) and his call of right to the unsatisfied
In what three ways is poison used in this play? All the murders at the endTo kill the king (his father)The acting out of the Murder of Gonzago
The three scenes where poisoning is used Hamlet’s father by Uncle ClaudiusActed out by traveling playAll main characters poisoned in last scene
Why were men and women of “high estate” considered more important to the Elizabethans? They were people on who the people of low estates’ lives or death depended. They were the real source of power.
What does Polonius’s advice to Laertes reveal about his character? It reveals his weaknesses. He’s an old windbag and he’s conniving. He’s persuasive at first, but it’s really actually shallow.
What does Laertes’s advice to Ophelia reveal about his character? He shows that he has little faith in the honor of other men and he has no reliable honor of his own.
How does Gertrude violate her role as Queen? She committed adultery with her brother-in-law
How does Claudius violate his duty or role as King? He should be a guardian of the kingdom (but he’s not) and he murdered someone. He also let the queen drink the poisoned wine.
Why does Hamlet admire Fortinbras? He can put strong feeling into action. Singleness of purpose – He’s really good at doing the one thing he wants to do (which Hamlet is not good at).
What did conscience mean in Elizabethan times? The ability to think about what one does
What does Mack mean by the term “spiritual poison” when referring to this play? Referring to greed, self-will, lust, cruelty
Describe what Hamlet’s character seems to have been like before his father’s death. Lived life through rose-tinted glasses, loved life.
What seems to have caused the change in his personality? He is shocked by his mother’s hasty marriage
According to Mack, Hamlet will face four problems as he grows. What is the first problem he faces? Hamlet discovers man has two sides, one is evil, and people are not always what they seem.
What does he discover is [the] answer to that first problem? The reality and permanence of evil
In Hamlet, what are some examples of what “seems” to be the case and what “is” the case? -When he hears from the ghost of his father’s murder and he’s told to kill the murderer-Is the ghost really his father or a devil?-Is Ophelia really as innocent as she looks?
What is the second problem Hamlet faces? To separate what seems from what is real
How does what “seems” in the play, The Murder of Gonzago, reflect what “is”? Everyone is watching someone else – Claudius is watching the player, Hamlet is watching Claudius and the players, and we (the audience) are watching Hamlet, Claudius, and the players
What is Hamlet’s third problem? Contamination
How has Hamlet been contaminated by the evil around him? He has become a murderer; he contributes to the madness and death of the girl he loves
What is the final problem Hamlet must face? Death
According to Mack, what is the purpose of the graveyard scene before Hamlet’s duel with Laertes? To make death seem more real
Why does Hamlet refer to Alexander the Great in the graveyard scene? An image that all people, even the greatest, die and end up in the grave
What is “the last garden” and who calls it that? The grave digger says this; the dust to which all return
How has Hamlet proved “most royal”? He has carried out his father’s command, he has destroyed the poison, and met the challenge of his life
According to Mack, what seems to be the purpose of the final scene with Fortinbras after Hamlet’s death? A picture of man as royal and not as dust
Where was Shakespeare born? Stratford-upon-Avon
What was his father’s occupation? Mayor
What foreign language would Shakespeare have learned in elementary school? Latin
Approximately how old was Shakespeare when he wrote Hamlet? 30
How is the play connected to Shakespeare’s son who died? He was called Hamnet
When was Hamlet first performed? 1601
What do we call a play that calls upon a son to avenge his father’s death? Revenge play
What is Hamlet’s task in the play? Avenging his father’s death
What is a soliloquy? Where a character speaks their inner thoughts out loud
How did Elizabethan’s view suicide? Absolutely forbidden, illegal
“Conscience doth make ___________ of us all” cowards
Where are copies of the three oldest sources for Hamlet located? The British Library
What is Hamlet’s plan to expose the King? He enlists a group of traveling players to act out the play of the King’s death and then he watches his uncle to see if he flinches
Why doesn’t Hamlet kill Claudius when he encounters Claudius after the play? Fear he will go to Heaven
Who does Hamlet think he is killing in his mother’s bedroom? the King
What did the word ‘closet’ mean during Shakespeare’s time? A private office
Who suggested Hamlet was in love with his mother? Sigmund Freud
How does Ophelia die? She drowns herself
What is unique about Yorick’s skull that Tennant used in his production? A man named Andre bequeathed his head to be used in Hamlet after he died
“The rest is _________” Silence
What were the different scripts? “Bad” quarto (1604)Second quarto (1605)First folio (1623)
What are some reasons for why the ghost might come back? -Needs to do something good for someone, take care of unfinished business-To tell them of the future/warn them-Correcting a wrong-He’s up to no good – come back to do something bad
Timeline of play Act 1 – about 2 months after king Hamlet’s deathAct 2 – about 2 months later; 4 months after Hamlet’s deathAct 3 – a few days after Act 2 ends
Four lessons around which all themes revolve -Discovering the existence of evil-Distinguishing appearance from reality: what “seems” from what “is”-Remaining uncorrupted in a corrupted world-Being ready for death
Hamlet’s foil with Fortinbras Hamlet: father died (murdered); uncle rules; seeks vengeance (conflicted, waivers)Fortinbras: father died (killed honorably in a duel); uncle rules; seeks vengeance (acts immediately)
What is a foil? A comparison between characters to show faults in other person
Who wrote the play? William Shakespeare
When was Shakespeare born? When did he die? Born – April 23, 1564Died – April 23, 1616
Who was Shakespeare’s wife? Anne Hathaway
When was the play written? 1599
Why are there variations in the wording of some of the lines? For example, why do some texts use “sullied” instead of “sallied” or “solid” as other texts do in 1.2.129? There was no standardized spelling. Webster had not printed his dictionary yet.
What are the different themes found in this work? Death/grief/bereavementNature of vengeance/RevengeResponsibility of leadersNature of repentanceProblems in life
Describe the Globe. Built on other side of the river from London; the original was burned twice; Sam Wannamaker decided to finance the rebuilding of the Globe (not located in same spot – approximately 200 yards from the original place); it was 45 feet from bottom to top; the original could house up to 3000 people; it was not completely round; there were 3 levels; open ceiling for lighting; royalty had boxed sheets; stage – 4 feet; original didn’t have own orchestra; pretty good acoustics; royalty sat in special area; groundlings get talked to; excavated in 1987; building in 1993; officially opened in 1997; only building in London with thatched roof (made of 6000 bundles of water reeds); now only 1700 people could go
What were some of the contemporary cultural problems in London that Shakespeare might be alluding to in the play?
By whom and in what line is the appearance of the ghost first spoken of? Marcellus, Horatio, and Bernardo – line 25
Describe the effect of the apparition upon Horatio. What does he think of it: what do you think of Horatio’s nature as revealed in the first scene? He is a skeptic, doesn’t believe everything he hears (seeing is believing); he is a character of caution
How do Horatio and Bernardo connect the appearance of the ghost with the state of affairs then existing in Norway? They think that he’s trying to warn them about impending danger from Fortinbras in Norway
What does the King say about his brother’s death. What does he say of his marriage to his brother’s widow? How does he speak of young Fortinbras? Although it is something to be mourned, there is no reason to dwell on it; He married her with a mixture of happiness and sadness; he balanced it out with the marriage/Fortinbras underestimated Claudius
What does Laertes request of the King? How does the King answer? Laertes expresses his desire to go to FranceAs long as Laertes’ father grants it
Interpret Hamlet’s aside describing the King? What does he mean by “kind”? Hamlet calls the king a beast (less than human); he does not like all the family ties between him and the king
Give the substance of Hamlet’s conversation with the King and Queen immediately following the aside. They encouraged Hamlet to be sorrowful, but to be able to move on. Claudius encourages Hamlet to look at him as a father; they also encourage him not to go back to school in Wittenburg
What does Hamlet reveal about himself in the succeeding soliloquy? Why is he feeling so depressed and dejected? He is feeling this way because of his mother’s abrupt marriage; everyone seems to turn against him/he is a malcontent; not willing to go along with the rest of the court for the greater good
What dramatic purpose is served by the conversation and soliloquy mentioned in the previous two questions? We are brought to think that Claudius is a good king and that Hamlet really does need to get over himself and grow up; but when he speaks to himself we gain more insight as to why he is feeling this way
What leads Hamlet to determine that he will watch for the ghost? What does he mean by “your loves”? Horatio tells him about what they saw and he wants to see the ghost to see if it’s his dad; they want to give him their duty but he says give him their love as he loves them
How does Laertes, at the opening of sc. III, speak to Ophelia about Hamlet? What feeling towards Hamlet does Laertes betray? What is the cause of this feeling? He relays to her that Hamlet’s affections will not last long; they are a result of hot-blooded youth; as Hamlet grows older his responsibilities will become more; he is a jealous/protective older brother
Summarize the conversation in sc. III between Polonius and Ophelia concerning Hamlet. Polonius is concerned that the relationship between the two will embarrass him; he is concerned about his own reputation; he tells her to not waste her time with Hamlet
What is signified by the reappearance of the ghost? He had something to say to Hamlet; the theme of spirituality, truth, and uncertainty or the uncertainty of truth in a world of spiritual ambiguity; something is rotten in the state of Denmark(what Horatio originally thought was true, is not)
Why is Hamlet evasive in talking about the ghost with Horatio and Marcellus? How does Hamlet behave after the ghost is gone? Why? Because he didn’t want them to tell others about it. He acts a little crazy because he is so unsure of the ghost’s authenticity; he doesn’t trust his perception; to help the others from guessing the motive for his behavior
What does Hamlet mean by his words, at the end of Act I, “The time is out of joint.” etc.? There is so much out of whack during this time
Briefly sum up the purpose of Act I. To introduce the scene, set up the situation, give us a taste of the characters
What is your explanation of Hamlet’s behavior with Ophelia as related by her to Polonius? Has it any connection with his putting “an antic disposition on”? Hamlet wants to make sure everyone knows he is crazy (to mislead them)Yes
How do you explain Hamlet’s dislike of Polonius? Hamlet sees his true character
Why is Polonius so ready to believe that he has discovered the cause of Hamlet’s madness? Because if Hamlet marries Polonius’ daughter, then Polonious would be in a better position
With what commissions (sc. II) do the King and Queen charge Rosencrantz and Guildenstern? What had been their previous relationship with Hamlet? To find out why Hamlet is acting mad/crazyThey were Hamlet’s school buddies
How does Polonius describe Hamlet’s behavior and condition to the King and Queen? He is in love with Ophelia
Does Hamlet suspect Rosencrantz and Guildenstern on their first visit to him, or does he gradually become suspicious? He gradually becomes suspicious
Is there any sarcasm in Hamlet’s words, “Shall we to the court? for, by, my fay I cannot reason”? Yuppers. He makes a direct reference to his insanity (like pointing it out or throwing them off)
Has Hamlet yet decided to avenge his father’s death? No, he’s still unsure if he can trust the ghost so he seeks to test the information
What do you learn about the times during Rosencrantz’s discussion with Hamlet concerning the actors? The theatrical audience has become shallow/lacking in culture
According to Hamlet, what are the characteristics of a good play? Speak lines as they are written; don’t ad lib; act realistically; lambasting characters (don’t think you’re better than the character you play)
How does Hamlet compare himself to a player? Based on this comparison, how does Hamlet see himself?
What self-revelation does Hamlet make in the soliloquy which ends Act II? Compare this soliloquy with Hamlet’s words in Act I, which begin, “The time is out of joint…” He doubts himself, wonders if he can complete the task; calls himself a coward …….(2nd part)
Describe Hamlet’s determination at the end of Act II. He painfully realizes his lack of action in avenging his father’s death so therefore he seeks a plan
Do Rosencrantz and Guildenstern give the King and Queen a true report of their encounter with Hamlet? No – they just admit that Hamlet is crazy (they say he’s mad but they don’t say why, which they know)
Is there humor or sarcasm in Polonius’s remark on hypocrisy? What does the King utter in the nature of a confession? Humor – he’s helping to cover Claudius’s sinBecause both Polonius and the king are guilty of this; he talks about covering up one’s actions with good deeds; Claudius says that his words are true and make him feel guilty
What additional light does the soliloquy in scene i throw upon Hamlet’s character? Do you think it conveys his philosophy of life? Analyze his balanced argument on suicide. He realizes how much life is vanity and sees the appeal of death and end of life’s humiliations Yes, it conveys his philosophy of life
When did Ophelia last see Hamlet? Why does he ask, “Where’s your father?” 2 months agoBecause he heard them knocking on the glass and it was suspicious (he suspects that Polonius is listening and she is being used as a pawn)
Does Hamlet assume madness during his discourse with Ophelia, or does he merely puzzle her with double meanings? Both – she keeps calling him mad and he uses double meaning (he does this with everyone except Horatio)He keeps using double meanings which causes her to believe he is mad
What is Hamlet’s view of Horatio’s character (scene ii, lines 61ff)? What dramatic purpose does this speech serve? He admires his self-control and reserve; he basically tells Horatio he is his closest friend/we see that Hamlet truly is acting when he acts insane; he is capable of being coherent”Heart to heart” – they’re really close, basically one personAs long as Horatio lives, Hamlet lives on (when Hamlet is dying)
How does Hamlet’s manner change after the entrance of the King, Queen, and others to see the play? He begins to act crazy again and even shows himself capable of cruelty
Why does the King break up the play? Is Hamlet’s the only explanation possible? He stands up and calls for light (truth) – does this because he feels guilty, he’s watching his crime acted outNo, he could also just not be feeling well or something else
Does the King suggest to Polonius that he go eavesdropping in the Queen’s closet? No, Polonius suggests this
What motives for his crime does the King reveal? Does he inspire pity at all? Because of the rewards he would reap; no, he wants to be forgiven but will not take the necessary steps to forgiveness; he will not repent and lose all he had gained; He acknowledges that prayer would be meaningless;
Does Hamlet delay killing the King from any other motive than desire for more adequate revenge? Does postponement make the revenge more complete? Hamlet’s revenge will not be relieved if he were to kill him while he was praying; Hamlet saw Claudius as repenting so more adequate revengeAccording to Hamlet, yes
Whom does Hamlet suppose to be behind the arras? Whom does he kill there? ClaudiusPolonius
What has Polonius’s purpose been in the play? Help the king (side kick); the go between guy; the King’s trusted adviser; Polonius is distracting – puts Hamlet’s madness on OpheliaHe calls attention to himself; manipulation; no concern to bend the truth; deceive
Does Hamlet accuse his mother of complicity in his father’s murder? No, he accuses her of being vulnerable and easily seduced
How do you understand Hamlet’s use of the pictures for purposes of comparison? If she was unaware before of the King’s crime, is the Queen now acquainted with it by Hamlet’s words or does she regard them as a sign of his madness? He points at first husband and shows how great he was, compared to second husband and shows he is a beast; he shows how she has sunk so low; compared the two men and how she ended up with a beastShe doesn’t think he’s mad until he sees the ghost
What reason does the ghost give for its second visitation? Is this the true reason? If so, explain it. To remind him of his purpose: take revenge on Claudius but don’t hurt queenYes, it had been a couple of months since the ghost appeared the first time, why hadn’t he performed task yet?
Can the King longer be in doubt as to real or feigned madness in Hamlet? No, he believes Hamlet has gone completely mad
How does the Queen describe Hamlet’s condition and the killing of Polonius to the King? He’s really mad
What does the King say of the regard in which Hamlet is held by the “distracted multitude”? How does Hamlet’s popularity complicate the King’s problem? Hamlet is loved by the “distracted multitude.” The people would be angry if Hamlet were to die
What is the King’s real purpose in sending Hamlet to England? To have him killed
To what does Hamlet dedicate himself at the end of this scene? Get revenge; committing himself to violence; he is looking to expose the king
In view of her former kindness to Ophelia, why does the Queen now refuse to see her? What has changed the Queen’s mind? Because Ophelia has gone insane; Horatio points out Ophelia’s insanity might attract unwanted attention to the King and Queen
For what dramatic purpose is Ophelia brought back to the stage at this point? How does the interruption help the King with Laertes? What causes Ophelia’s insanity? Helps persuade Laertes to kill Hamlet; fuels Laertes’ hate for Hamlet; her father’s death
What misadventure brings Hamlet back from England? Pirates attacked Hamlet’s ship and held him for ransom
What influence does the King use with Laertes in respect to taking revenge on Hamlet? What is the King’s suggestion about the foils? He puts the blame on Hamlet for the cause of his father and sister’s deaths; the king wants Hamlet dead so he looks to use Laertes who removed pointed tip from the sword and dipped it in poison; no longer Hamlet’s friend or enemies
Tennyson did not believe that Ophelia committed suicide. Do you? Is there anything in the play that seems to support the suicide theory? Yes:….
Who was Yorick? How does Hamlet’s speech about him strike you? What is the purpose of his speech? The king’s jesterHamlet loved the jester; he had a lot of fun with him when he was youngerit makes death real
What leads Hamlet to speak and act as he does at the grave, love for Ophelia or resentment against Laertes? Do you think Hamlet really did love Ophelia? If so, how do you explain his conduct towards her? His love for OpheliayesHe was feigning madness
What has intervened to turn the course of affairs, as described by Hamlet to Horatio? How does Hamlet discover the King’s purpose in sending him to England? Hamlet discovers from the grave diggerHamlet changes the letters
Does Hamlet show any remorse for sending Guildenstern and Rosencrantz to their death? No
What significance has the exchange of courtesies just before the catastrophe? Describe the duel. Hamlet is sorry for what he has done, he apologizes, shows the animosity has simmered down between them, Hamlet gets 2 hits, Laertes becomes angry and hits Hamlet with the poison sword, Hamlet returns the anger and they continue to fight, Hamlet…
Does poetic justice demand the Queen’s death? What blame does Laertes lay upon the King? If she did have something to do with King Hamlet’s death, yes. If not, no. He was behind all the poisoning
Why does the play not end with Hamlet’s death? Why does Fortinbras appear? Whom does Hamlet name for successor to the throne? Why does this responsibility fall to Hamlet? Because Hamlet tells Horatio to tell his story then Fortinbras appears to take the throneFortinbrasBecause he is the rightful heir to the throne
“A little more than kin, and less than kind” Hamlet to the king; the king called Hamlet his cousin and son (1.2.65)
“Seems, madam: Nay, it is; I know not ‘seems.’ / ‘Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother, / nor customar suits of solemn black” Hamlet says it to his mother (1.2.75-78)
“Frailty, thy name is woman!” Hamlet says this about his mother speaking of her easy persuasion (1.2.146)
“‘A was a man, take him for all in all, / I shall not look upon his like again” Hamlet said this to Horatio about his father (1.2.187)
“Give they thoughts no tongue” Polonius says it to Laertes as advice to him (1.3.59)
“Neither a borrower, nor a lender be; / For loan oft loses both itself and friend…/This above all: to thine own self be true. / And it must follow as the night the day. / Thou canst not then be false to any man” Polonius says this to Laertes as advice (1.3.75-76)
“Something rotten in the state of Denmark” Marcellus to Horatio (1.4.90)
“…cut off even in the blossoms of my sin, / unhoused, disappointed, unanaled, / No reckoning made, but sent to my account / With all my imperfections on my head” The ghost said this to Hamlet about how he was not able to repent of his sins before he died (1.5.132)
“…brevity is the soul of wit” Polonius to the king and queen; talking about Hamlet’s madness (2.2.?)
“Though this be madness, yet there is method in’t” Polonius to himself about Hamlet (2.2.206)
“…for there is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so” Hamlet to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern about Denmark being a prison
“…What a piece of work is a man! How noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god! The beauty of the world, the paragon of animals! And yet, to me, what is this quintessence of dust?” Hamlet to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (2.2.309)
“…they say on old man is twice a child” Rosencrantz to Hamlet about Polonius
“Rich gifts wax poor when givers prove unkind” Ophelia to Hamlet trying to give back tokens
“…Get thee to a nunnery” Hamlet to Ophelia (2.2.122)
“…Suit the action to the word, the word to the action, with this special observance, that you o’er step not the modesty of nature” Hamlet to the players, he’s giving them advice about the play (3.2.17-19)
“The lady doth protest too much, methinks” Queen to Hamlet; Hamlet asked her how she was liking the play (3.2.228)
“O speak to me no more! / These words like daggers enter in my ears” Queen to Hamlet; because of what Hamlet was saying about… (3.4.97-98)
“…we know what we are, but know not what we may be” Ophelia to the king (4.5.43-44)
“When sorrows come, they come not single spies, / But in battalions” King to Horatio talking about murder of Polonius (4.5.79)
“Too much of water hast thou, poor Ophelia, / And therefore I forbid my tears” Laertes to the king and queen about Ophelia because she drowned (5.1.186)
“…Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio, a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy” Hamlet to Horatio, speaking of the late king’s jester (5.2.183-185)
“…-the rest is silence” Hamlet to Horatio; as he (Hamlet) died (5.2.360)
“Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead” First ambassador to Horatio (5.2.373)