The Odyssey Review

What is an invocation? a prayer; the one in the Odyssey is to the Muses
Who are the Muses? the nine goddesses of the arts such as poetry, music, dance; daughters of Zeus
Who is Telemachus? Odysseus’ son who is looking for his missing father
Who is Odysseus? leader of the Greek army in the Trojan War; wanders for twenty years before returning home; the hero of the Odyssey
At the beginning of the reading, where is Odysseus? on Calypso’s island
How long has it been since Odysseus left for the Trojan War? twenty years- ten for the war; ten wandering after the war
Who is Odysseus’ patron goddess? Athena, the goddess of wisdom
Who is sent to Calypso as a messenger from Zeus? Hermes, the messenger god
What is an epic or Homeric simile? Give an example of one- what two things are being compared? Comparison of epic events to simple and easy understandable every day events; ex. compares Hermes to a gull flying just above the waves, dipping down to catch a fish
What is Odysseus doing when Homer first introduces him to his readers? sitting, looking over the ocean toward the direction of Ithaca; crying
Why is Odysseus crying on Calypso’s island? He misses his wife and his home
What does Calypso give Odysseus to help him on his journey? a raft, food, and drink
To whom does Calypso compare herself? Penelope, Odysseus’ wife
Whom does Odysseus choose between Calypso and his wife? Penelope, even though she will become old
Why does Odysseus encounter a storm at sea? Poseidon is angry at him and punishing him
Where does the storm lead Odysseus right after he leaves Calypso’s island? the island of Scheria
Who welcomes Odysseus when he arrives on the island of Scheria? Naussica- King Alcinous’ daughter
What law is given to Odysseus when he arrives on the island of Scheria Greek Law of Hospitality- be kind to strangers
Who is Odysseus’ father? Laertes
Where is Odysseus’ home? Ithica
Who are the Lotus Eater? Live on island, eat Lotus flower, make some parts of crew forget about home
Who rescues the men from the Lotus Eaters? Odysseus
Who is the Goddess of Wisdom? Why is this goddess associated with Odysseus? Athena- she’s his protectorate
Who are the Cyclops? Brutish, 1-eyed giants that raise sheep
Who is Polyphemus? Cyclops, son of Poseidon
Why is Polyphemus important to the story? He is the reason Odysseus has been kept off course and not allowed to return home- Poseidon’s revenge
Why do Odysseus and his men visit the Cyclops’ cave? Curiosity and hospitality
What does Odysseus tell Polyphemus about the location of his ship? Lies and tells him it crashed on the rocks
What does Polyphemus do to two of Odysseus’ men after Odysseus tells him about the ship? Eats them
Why doesn’t Odysseus kill Polyphemus? Because they need his help to get out of the cave
What do Odysseus and his men Make from the club found in the cave? Spike/spear
When Polyphemus returns, what does Odysseus offer him? Wine
What does Odysseus tell Polyphemus his name is? Nohbdy
What violent act does Odysseus perform on Polyphemus? Puts his eye out
Why don’t the other Cyclops come to Polyphemus’ aid? He says “Nohbdy” did anything to hurt him
How do Odysseus’ men get out of Polyphemus’ cave? 1 man tied to 3 sheep
How does Odysseus leave Polyphemus’ cave? Grabs belly of largest/most prized ram
What does Odysseus do once he is back on his ship? Taunts Polyphemus
What do we call today the result of what Polyphemus threw? Tidal wave
Who lives on the Isle of the Winds? Aeolus
What gift does he give Odysseus? All the stormy winds tied in a leather bag
When Odysseus and his men come within sight of Ithaca, why don’t they reach it? His men opened the bag of winds and blew them off course
Who are the Laestrygones? Giant cannibals
Who is Circe? Witch and goddess, most beautiful of all immortals
Who did not go into Circe’s home and why? Eurylochus; he was suspicious
What does Circe do to Odysseus’ men? Turns them into pigs; her spell makes them forget their home
Why is Odysseus immune to Circe’s spells? Hermes gave him an antidote to counter Circe’s power
How long do Odysseus and his crew stay in the company of Circe? 1 year- many seasons
Explain the delay in departure from Circe’s island. Circe commands Odysseus to visit the Land of the Dead to see Tiresias.
Why does Odysseus go to the Land of the Dead? To see Tiresias and learn of his destiny
What does Odysseus do that will allow him to call up the dead? 1. sacrifice a heifer2. burn bits on an altar3. sacrifice a black lamb4. let blood stream into pit
What does Tiresias predict for Odysseus’s men? Death if they eat or slaughter the sacred cattle of Helios
What does Tiresias say Odysseus will find when he returns home? His house filled with trouble; rude men trying to marry his wife
What four steps does Tiresias recommend Odysseus do when he returns home? 1. kill the suitors2. go overland on foot3. take an oar4. make sacrifice to Poseidon
Where does Tiresias say Odysseus will die? At sea of old age

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