The Odyssey Books 1-4

Homer Wrote The Odyssey, born sometime between 12th and 8th centuries BC
Calypso Nymph holding Odysseus hostage on the island of Ogygia, her home
Odysseus Protagonist, hero of story, son of Laertes, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus, king of Ithaca
Athena goddess, daughter of Zeus, sometimes disguised as MentesFavors Odysseus because of all the greeks, he possesses the qualities she’s a a patron of
Pylos Kingdom ruled by King Nestor
Telemachus Son of Odysseus and Penelope, leaves Ithaca to look for his father
Proteus The Old Man of the Sea, shapeshifter, servant of Poseidon
Mentes King of the Taphians, who Athena is disguised as
Penelope Wife of Odysseus, mother of Telemachus, queen of Ithaca
Ithaca City ruled by Odysseus
Troy Where the Trojan War took place, all soldiers and kings leave to go back home after war
Hermes Son of Zeus, messenger god
Nestor King of Pylos, and son of NeleusTelemachus goes to him first for help with finding his father
Menelaus Ruler of Sparta, husband of Helen, brother of AgamemnonGoes up against Proteus to find his way back home from war, Telemachus seeks help from him about Odysseus
Helen Daughter of Zeus, wife of MenelausOriginally leaves Sparta to be with Paris, causing the Trojan War, eventually back home, she admits she was wrong
Zeus King of all gods, god of thunderbolt, father of the Olympians and many mortals
Poseidon God of the sea, younger brother of Zeus, father of Polyphemus(cyclops)Enemy of Odysseus because he blinds Polyphemus
Pisistratus Son of Nestor, accompanies Telemachus to Sparta to see Menelaus
Antinous One of Penelope’s suitors in Ithaca, defies Telemachus, very arrogant
Hubris Excessive pride
Xenia Guest-host relationshipGood xenia-relationship between Athena disguised as Mentes and Telemachus Bad xenia-suitors in Ithaca
Eurycleia Loyal servant to Odysseus and Penelope in Ithaca, keeps journey of Telemachus a secret
Circe goddess and enchantress, changes men to swine
Mt. Olympus Home of gods
Sparta Ruled by Menelaus, where Telemachus goes after Pylos
How does Athena plan on getting Odysseus home? She tells Zeus that she will go to Ithaca to inspire Telemachus to go on a journey to find his father by sending him to Pylos and Sparta to learn about where he is
Story of Aegisthus/Orestes/Agamemnon/Clytemnestra While Agamemnon is fighting in Troy, Aegisthus seduced his wife Clytemnestra. When Agamemnon returned, Aegisthus kills him. Orestes avenges his father’s death by killing Aegisthus and Clytemnestra.
Why does Zeus mention the Aegisthus and Orestes story? To compare with the story of Penelope and Odysseus because Odysseus has also been gone from home a long time because of the war, and Penelope has many suitors after her to take the place of Odysseus.
Hubris presented in The Odyssey Pride of Odysseus after blinding Polyphemus and yelling out his name to the Cyclops after departing on his ship with his menOdysseus believes no one can stop him
Odysseus’ character Strong and courageous warrior, cunning and quick thinking, thirst for glory, confidence in his authority
Telemachus’ character Still maturing, protective of his mother and father’s land, learns the responsibilities of a young prince, and becomes more assertive
How does Penelope hold off the suitors? She puts off her decision and leads them on with promises. She says she won’t remarry until she finishes a burial shroud which will never be completed.
Why does Athena think Telemachus should visit Nestor and Menelaus? To earn a name for himself and find out more about what happened to Odysseus and where he is
Menelaus’ interaction with the “Old Man of the Sea Who Never Lies” Menelaus has to pin down Proteus in order to find out how to get back home, which he does with the help of Proteus’ daughter
When did Homer write The Odyssey? 750 BC
What is the setting of The Odyssey? During the Bronze Age, 12th century BCE
Augury A sign of what will happen in the future
How does Helen help the men with their grief when Telemachus visits Sparta? She slips a drug into the wine that makes them forget their sorrows.

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