Terms from Othello Pktt & Rhetoric Pkt

verse poetic language that includes meter and sometimes rhyme; organized in lines with a consistent number of syllables; used for hight status characters, great affairs of war and state, and tragic moments
prose ordinary written language with no meter or rhyme; organized in sentences; used for low status characters, proclamations, accusation, letters, comedic moments, and to express madness
Shakespeare born in 1564 in Stratford-on-Avon, recieved a classical education, began as an actor, and wrote 38 plays, 4 lengthy poems, and a sonnet cycle
meter the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables; responsible for creating rhythm of a line; total number of metrical feet in a line of verse
foot a group of syllables that forms one complete unit of a metrical patern
iambic pentameter the most common metrical pattern in Shakespeare; lines of five feet, 10 syllables
blank verse unrhymed iambic pentameter
free verse no regular meter
sonnets 14 line poem, usually written in iambic pentameter; organized in 3 quatrains and a couplet;; typical rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg
Italian/petarchan sonnet has an octave and a sestet
quatrain 4 line stanza, usually rhymed
couplet a pair of rhyming verse lines
first quatrain introduction of a sonnet
second quatrain refection and development of the issue in the sonnet
third quatrain shows the complication of the sonnet
concluding couplet conclusion of a sonnet; is the most pronounced break or turn
aside a character’s remark, either to the audience or another character, that the other characters on stage are not supposed to hear
monologue an extended speech by a single character that is uninterrupted by others
soliloquy a speech a character gives when she/he is alone on stage; a monologue to represent a character’s thoughts
foil a character whose personality or attitudes are in sharp contrast to those of another character in the same work
allusion reference to an event, person, place, or another work of literature
Janus roman god of gates and doors and beginnings and ends; depicted with a double-faced head; worshipped at times of beginning; represents the transition between primitive life and civilization, the countryside and city, peace and war, and the growing up of young people
tragedy a serious play representing the disastrous downfall of the hero; achieves catharsis by arousing pity and terror in the audience
hamartia tragic flaw or error
hubris excessive pride leading to devine retribution
classical tragic hero a good man that is important to society; the hero suffers a fall brough by tragic flaw and comes to some kind of understanding of what has happened
tragic flaw defect of character that leads to the hero’s disasterous downfall; something in his nature
Moors muslim people of Arab and Berber descent from northwest Africa; invaded Spain and established a civilization in Andalusia; dark or very black; symbolize something other than human, often something devilish
cuckold a man whose wife is unfaithful to him; represented with horns growing out of his forehead
Othello written around 1604; fascination with evil
setting of Othello journey from Venice, Italy to Cyprus; Venice=order, rule of reason; Cyprus=disorder, rule of passion
ethos the appeal of writer’s character (credibility, integrity, authority) and appearing fair and well-balanced
logos the appeal to reason of logic; facts
pathos the appeal to the audience’s emotions
connotation associations and implications that go beyond the literal meaning of a word, which derive from how the word has been commonly used and the associations people make with it
denotation the literal, dictionary definition of a word
image a word, phrase, or figure of speech (especially a simile or metaphor) that addresses the senses, suggesting mental experiences of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, feelings, or actions; offer sensory impressions to the reader and also convey emotions and moods (foundation for pathos)
intimation hinting at a meaning, but not stating it explicity
metaphor a comparison made by referring to one thing in terms of another
repetition the repeating of sounds, phrases, clauses, words, and ideas
leading questions a question which subtly prompts the respondent to answer in a particular way
assumptive questions these questions include guesses which limit independent thought and/or potential answers ex. How much will gas prices go up next year?This question does not allow for the possibility that gas prices may go down
linked statements associates something with one part of the sentence, but not the otherex. Would you prefer to live in Alba or in Barta, where the crime rate is very low?The link with Barta makes it more desirable even though Alba’s crime rate could be equal or even lower
implication questions asking questions that lead the respondent to think of consequences of current or past events links the past with the future in an apparently inexcaple chain of cause and effectex. If you vote for that party, what do you think will happen to taxes?
ask for agreement directly and clearly asks for agreement and makes it easier to say ‘yes’ than ‘no’.ex. Do you agree that we need to save the whales?
tag questions short questions added to the end of statements that disguise a command as a questionex. You’ll come to dinner tonight, won’t you?