Romeo And Juliet

The Basics -First performed in 1957, making it one of Shakespeare’s earlier works-Tragedy: The plot borrows from a tradition of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity, notably the tale of Pyramus and Thisbe.
Shakespeare’s Language -Shakespeare’s language is considered modern English-Play contains frequent allusions common to love poetry at the timeThis language was spread through Europe by Petrarch, a 14th century Italian poet famous for his sonnets and his love for Laura
Diction -Uses words that no longer exist in English we speak-Uses words that are in our language, but now have different meaning-Uses words that are in our language, but we simply don’t know what these words mean–look it up!
Words Shakespeare Uses ~marry= an interjection (like indeed)~soft= interjection meaning “hold” or “wait”~mark= listen~an= if~fell= cruel, fierce, deadly~to-night= last night~ay= yes~wherefore= why~kind= true to one’s nature ~perforce= we must, you must~wilt= will
Thou, Thee, Thy These mean you, you, and your respectively
Inversions Inverts the subject + verb of a sentence e.g. went I to Bellamine
Ellusion cut out syllables to meet the poetic meter-o’=on-th’=the-i’=in-‘t=it-ta’ken=taken-’em=them-‘a=he (often)-o’er=over
Seperation Separates words in a sentence that should logically go together for sake of retaining the poetic meter or emphasizing a particular word
Wordplay -pun: a play of words based on the similarity of sound between two words with different meanings; a form of word play that deliberately exploits ambiguity between similar words for rhetorical effect, whether humorous or serious-double entendre: a statement that is deliberately ambiguous, one of whose meaning is bawdy or suggestive of some impropriety
Shakespeare’s Theater -Shakespeare: actor and playwright -Acting companies: troupes that acted together regardless of the piece-All actors were men (young men whose voices had not yet changed-female parts) -Until the 1590’s, acting troupes played in a wide variety of locations -Open-air playhouses were places of entertainment both for the wealthy and the “groundlings”-There was no curtain, and little scenery, so scene changes had to be expressed in other ways e.g. shot at daytime-Thrust Stage: comes out toward audience vs. modern proscenium stage-Type of Seating: The Globe
Literary Terms -oxymoron: contradicting combined words e.g. brawling love-paradox: statement that seems contradictory, but actually true e.g. jumbo shrimp
Sonnet -sonneto: a little sound or song -fourteen line poem written in iambic pentamenter, which employ one of the rhyme schemes and adhere to a tightly structured thematic organization
Petrarchan Sonnet -Also known as Italian Sonnet, named after Italian poet Petrarch-First and most commonly used-This sonnet is divided into two stanzas: the octave (the first eight lines) followed by the answering setet (the final six lines)-Rhyme Scheme: abba, cdecde, or cdcdcd-Volta: occurs between the eighth and ninth lines, a turn from foregoing argument or narrative into counterargument, clarification, etc.
Shakespearean Sonnet -Also known as English Sonnet-Consists of three quatrains and a couplet, which plays as the conclusion, amplification, or even refutation-Rhyme Scheme: abab, cdcd, efef, efef, gg
Act 1, Prolugue: The Prologue states that two lovers will kill themselves because of their families’ feud. The feud will end with their deaths. *By telling the audience the plot first, Shakespeare heightens the dramatic irony.*”fatal,” “star-crossed,” “misadventured,” “death-marked” suggest that Romeo and Juliet’s deaths are fated
Act 1, Scene 1: 1.1 sets a tragicomic tone by interrupting a funny scene between servants with a brawl. The Prince tells the families that if they fight again they will be executed. The Montagues express their concern for their son and ask Benvolio to find out what’s wrong with Romeo. Romeo reveals that he is unhappy because Rosaline has sworn to be a virgin for life, but he loves her so much it hurts. Or at least he thinks he loves her. Benvolio’s advice is essentially to look at other women because there are other women more attractive (and available) than Rosaline. Romeo is doubtful, but he agrees to try. *Sampson and Gregory: servants of the Capulets; their juvenile, bawdy humor sets a comedic tone for the opening of the play*”bite your thumb”: a gesture of defiance; Elizabethan equivalent of the middle finger*Benvolio: “I do but keep the peace. Put up thy sword / Or manage it to part these men with me.” (1.1.69-70)~Benvolio is peaceful; he tries to stop the fight. His name sounds like benevolent or bene (good).*Tybalt: “What, drawn and talk of peace? I hate the word / As I hate hell, all Montagues, and thee.” (1.1.71-72)~Tybalt wants to fight everyone and is hateful. His name sounds like tyrant.*Capulet: Juliet’s dad and old: his wife says he needs a “crutch” (1.1.77)*Montague: Concerned about his son Romeo because Romeo is isolating himself and seems moody (1.1.134-145)*Romeo: “Why then, O brawling love, O loving hate, / O anything of nothing first create! /O heavy lightness, serious vanity, / Misshapen chaos of well-seeming forms,/ Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health, / Still waking sleep that is not what it is!” (1.1.181-186)~Romeo talks about love in a series of oxymorons that express how conflicted he feels about love. He spends his whole conversation with Benvolio talking about how much pain he is in because of his unrequited love for Rosaline, but he only mentions the girl herself a couple of times, and even then it’s only to talk about her beauty, so he seems pretty self-absorbed and shallow.(This is how all love-sick gentlemen talk about their love.)*”Dian’s wit” (1.1.217): This is an allusion to Diana, goddess of the hunt, because she is also a virgin. Rosaline’s virginity is the reason Romeo is unhappy—he chose the most unattainable girl in Verona.*Foil: Romeo (more dramatic, silly, and whiny) & Benvolio
Act 1, Scene 2: Paris asks Capulet for Juliet’s hand in marriage. Capulet thinks she’s too young, but tells Paris to woo her, and invites him to a feast that night. Capulet sends the servant out to invite other guests to the feast. . . . Benvolio is still trying to talk Romeo into considering other ladies when they are interrupted by the Capulet servant, who asks Romeo to read something for him. It is a list of guests at Capulet’s feast that night. Thus Romeo discovers that Rosaline, his beloved, will be at the feast. Benvolio challenges Romeo to go to the feast and compare Rosaline with other beauties. Romeo says he will go, but only to rejoice that Rosaline is most beautiful of all.
Act 1, Scene 3: Lady Capulet wants to have a serious conversation with Juliet, but the Nurse interrupts with a long reminiscence about infant Juliet’s weaning and what toddler Juliet said about falling on her back. Lady Capulet tells Juliet that Paris wants to marry her, and urges her to look him over and see that he is the husband for her. Servants come to call everyone to the feast. -Nurse had daughter that was same age as Juliet that died-Wet nurse= nurse nurses her own child and another child (Juliet), transitions into motherly nanny-Juliet stopped drinking milk by using wormwood (bitter-tasting plant used to wean the child) before an earthquake takes place.-Day before earthquake, falls forward and has a lump the size of a rooster’s testicle. Next time fall on back (sexual intercourse pun). -Nurse cares for what Juliet thinks more. e.g. shut up!-Juliet’s Mom= money, power, high-class -Nurse= physical intimacy (pleasure), more down to earth, & experienced, low-class-Foil: Relationship between Juliet and Mom is more cold than Juliet and Nurse
Act 1, Scene 4: Mercutio tries to persuade Romeo to dance at Capulet’s feast, but Romeo insists that he is too sadly love-lorn to do anything but hold a torch. Then Romeo says that it’s not wise to go to the feast at all, because of a dream he had. . . . Mercutio mocks Romeo’s belief in his dream by going on and on about “Queen Mab,” but Romeo is sure that some terrible fate awaits him. Nevertheless, he goes into the feast with his friends. -Mercutio: bring light into situation, take Romeo out of funk -Queen of Mab Dream: Queen is small and delicate (details to paint picture for friends)*courtier: desperate members of court that try to gain favor from king*makes people dream*good dream–>nightmare when soldier is the only to wake up, “lie on back”/”presses”/”bear” is meant as a burden/forceful, fairy=hag-Starts trying to cheer Romeo then gets caught in a dark place in his mind-Mercutio’s Character: unstable (makes Romeo look stable), mercurial (moody)
Act 1, Scene 5: At Capulet’s house, Romeo and his friends enter as preparations are being made for the dancing. The musicians are tuning up, and the servants are hurrying to clear away the remains of the feast. . . . Capulet enters, greets the masked strangers, and invites them to dance. Romeo sees Juliet and says to himself that this is the first time he’s seen true beauty. Tybalt recognizes Romeo and sends for his sword, but Capulet orders Tybalt to do nothing. Saying that he’ll make Romeo pay, Tybalt leaves. . . . Romeo holds Juliet’s hand, and begs a kiss, which she gives him. They kiss again, and then both are called away. As everyone is leaving, they each learn the name of the other, and they each exclaim upon the fate that has made each fall in love with his/her enemy. -Scene: mix of elegance and it was hectic; lively (Dance!); serving-men feel stressed out-presents upstarirs +downstairs for class-Capulet: cajoling, bossy –> for comfort to dance-Pg 29 Romeo Speech when he first sees Juliet: Juliet beautiful, compared to jewel and dove contrasts to dark (light dark comparison); representing the idea in such a way that she is separate form all else-Relationship between Tybalt & Capulet (nephew to uncle): Capulet tells Tybalt not to fight Romeo at the party in a angry, indignant, and bossy way.-Meeting of Romeo & Juliet: Sonnet; violating her hand with his rough hand and that he can fix it with a gentle kiss. He compares Juliet to a holy shrine and compares himself to a pilgrim (who make journeys to shrines). Juliet says it’s ok, let’s just pray. Romeo says they also have lips…in which Juliet responds by saying for praying. Romeo then says grant my prayer of a kiss then. Juliet says okay, that she’s standing right in her place. [They kiss!]*Conceit: metaphor governing entire metaphor e.g. Romeo=pilgrim, Juliet=saint*Function for extra quatrain (Lines 108-110): Juliet flirting to get another kiss (take sin back) –>actually liking Romeo
Act 2, Prolugue: The Chorus tells us that Romeo and Juliet are suffering because they can’t meet, but that passion gives them power to find a way to see each other. Sonnet, straightforward, says what has happened and what will happen (narrow), not figurative
Act 2, Scene 1: On his way home from Capulet’s feast, Romeo turns back and jumps the wall of Capulet’s garden. Benvolio calls for Romeo and Mercutio bawdily conjures Romeo, but he will not appear, and his friends depart.
Act 2, Scene 2: In Capulet’s garden Romeo sees Juliet come to her window. He is entranced by her beauty and listens as she tells the night that she loves Romeo and wishes that he had another name. Romeo surprises her by offering to take another name for her love. At first, Juliet worries for Romeo’s safety and then she worries that he may be a deceiver, but he wins her over with passionate vows of love. They pledge their love to one another and then Juliet is called away by the Nurse. . . . Answering the call of the Nurse, Juliet goes into the house, then comes right back out and tells Romeo that the next day she will send a messenger to find out when and where she is to meet and marry him. Juliet is again called back into the house, and Romeo starts to leave, but Juliet again comes back out, to set a time that her messenger should go to Romeo. Romeo tells her that the messenger should come at nine in the morning. They say a long goodbye, and after Juliet is gone, Romeo says that he will go to the cell of Friar Laurence to get his help.
Act 2, Scene 3: At dawn Friar Laurence gathers herbs and comments on how — in both plants and people — everything has some good, and every good can be abused and turned to evil. . . . Romeo appears and tells Friar Laurence that he has fallen in love with Juliet and wants him to marry them. The Friar criticizes Romeo for jumping so quickly from love of Rosaline to love of Juliet, but agrees to perform the ceremony because he thinks that the marriage may end the hatred between the Capulets and Montagues.
Act 2, Scene 4: Mercutio wonders where Romeo is. Benvolio says that Tybalt has sent a challenge to Romeo, and Mercutio scornfully describes Tybalt as an conceited killer. . . . Mercutio kids Romeo about love, and Romeo joins in the bawdy repartee. . . . Mercutio bawdily mocks the Nurse, who tells Romeo that she wants a word in private with him. . . . The Nurse complains about Mercutio, receives from Romeo the information about time and place of the wedding, then chatters on about how sweet Juliet is.
Act 2, Scene 5: Juliet impatiently awaits the return of the Nurse with news from Romeo. . . . The Nurse teases Juliet by finding all kinds of ways to not deliver the joyful news, but finally tells her that she is to go Friar Laurence’s cell to be married to Romeo.
Act 2, Scene 6: Just before the wedding, Friar Laurence advises Romeo to love moderately. . . . Romeo and Juliet tell each other how much they love one another, and Friar Laurence leads them off to be married.
Act 2 Analysis 1. Mercutio, who can be characterized as bawdy and vulgar, attempts to lure Romeo out of hiding by shouting lots of filthy things about Rosaline in hopes that Romeo will emerge to curse him out and defend Rosaline’s honor. Romeo says, “He jests at scars that never felt a wound.”, in which he means that Mercutio can laugh because he has never been hurt by love and doesn’t understand. Romeo dismisses Mercutio as immature.2. In the comparison, Juliet is compared to the sun. Juliet is compared to the bright, warm sun that will chase away the sick, pale moon. The moon is jealous of the sun. It expresses that Romeo wants pleasure from Juliet. He is trying to show that he never loved Rosaline. While Romeo thinks the moon is cold because it represents a virgin, Juliet believes the moon is inconstant.3. Act Two Scene Two develops my understanding of the characterization of Romeo by it characterizes Romeo as emotional, melodramatic, and infatuated because he constantly comparing Juliet to bright objects and just the fact that he got over Rosaline so quickly. Romeo uses celestial language, not seeing Juliet as a human. It also develops my understanding of the characterization of Juliet by it characterizes Juliet as smart, determined, and faithful because she is the one who proposes to Romeo instead of the other way around and she relies on love with Romeo [even though they just met!] to rule her life. Juliet can also be described as practical and possessive (e.g. child and bird)4. In Act Two, Scene Three, lines 21-31, Friar Laurence delivers a speech about how herbs and plants have the potential to be healing and medicinal, but if they’re misused, they can be deadly poison. These lines foreshadow events later in the play by it may foreshadow Romeo and Juliet’s deaths because although love can be great, too much (infatuation) is not good and can be deadly.5. I would characterize the friar’s relationship with Romeo as a mentor and acts almost like a second father to Romeo. He is constantly advising Romeo with the following sayings: “Wisely and slow. They stumble that run fast.” (2.3, line 94) and “In man as well as herbs—grace and rude will; /And where the worser is predominant, /Full soon the canker death eats up that plant.” (2.3, lines 28-30) The friar is well-educated and respected.6. Three examples from this scene to demonstrate this transformation in Romeo is that Romeo is energetic, joking with Mercutio, and an extrovert. This shows that Romeo has wit, and why Mercutio and Romeo were friends in the first place. Romeo starts the joke about the Nurse.7. Act Two Scene Five deepens my understanding of the relationship between the Nurse and Juliet by it shows how as a motherly figure, she likes to tease and play games with Juliet. This is shown when the Nurse brings the news of what Romeo has said to Juliet, and as Juliet anxiously asks the Nurse about the information, the Nurse teases her and keeps her in suspense by changing the subject and says that her back is paining. “You known not how to choose a man. Romeo? No, not he. Though his face be better…” Verbal Irony8. In Act Two Scene Six, the advice friar Lawrence gives Romeo before Juliet enters is to love moderately and not with too much intensity, “these violent delights have violent ends” (2.6, line 9) This advice is appropriate because love is supposed to progress slowly. Loving with too much intensity is considered infatuation, in which relationships come to a quick end. Friar’s comparisons help make his point by it shows how even honey can ruin a meal because it is too sweet, that’s why you have to moderate the things you give and
Act 3, Scene 1: On the streets of Verona Benvolio tries to persuade Mercutio that it’s best to stay out of the way of the Capulets and a quarrel, but Mercutio jokingly claims that Benvolio is as much of a quarreler as anyone. . . . Tybalt, looking for Romeo, is challenged to a fight by Mercutio, but then Romeo appears. . . . Tybalt challenges Romeo to fight. Romeo refuses, but Mercutio steps forward and fights Tybalt. As Romeo is trying to stop the fight, Tybalt gives Mercutio a wound, then runs away. Mercutio dies. Romeo is ashamed of himself for letting Mercutio do the fighting, and when Tybalt returns, Romeo kills him. Benvolio has a hard time getting the dazed Romeo to leave the scene. . . . Benvolio tells the Prince what happened. Lady Capulet wants Romeo’s life, but the Prince levies fines and exiles Romeo. -Change in mood: Comedy to Tragedy1st fight scene=playful (Mercutio vs. Tybalt)Mercutio jokes as he is dying. People around him including Romeo and Benvolio do not know that he is seriously injured until he dies. He is the kinnsman to the Prince, which shows that the feud is not just affecting the families in the feud, but the community as a whole.2nd fight scene=vengeful, serious (Romeo vs. Tybalt)-Climax:protagonist makes choice (turning point)Romeo: “O, I am fortune’s fool…”
Act 3, Scene 2: Juliet longs for the coming of night and Romeo. . . . The Nurse appears; she has seen Tybalt’s corpse and heard that Romeo has been banished. The Nurse is so overwrought that her words first make Juliet think that Romeo is dead. When the Nurse finally makes it clear that Tybalt is dead and Romeo is banished, Juliet first turns against Romeo for killing her cousin, then defends him for killing the man who would have killed him. Then Juliet remembers that the Nurse said Romeo has been “banished,” which drives her to despair. The Nurse promises Juliet that she’ll make arrangements for Romeo to come that night for a farewell visit. -Allusion to Phaeton so that Romeo can quickly come-Lines 10-11: Metaphor of night to matron–>teach how to lose virginity-Lines 26-31: Compares child with new clothes that they can’t wear to coming of Romeo-Juliet likes night because it will bring Romeo, compares him to stars.-Indecisive of whether to take Tybalt’s side or Romeo’s side, then thinks Romeo is still perfect because that is her husband even though he killed her cousin.
Act 3, Scene 3: Learning from the Friar that he is to be banished, Romeo declares that the Friar is torturing him to death, then throws himself on the floor, moaning and weeping. . . . The Nurse brings news that Juliet is in just as bad shape as Romeo. Romeo, wild with guilt at the pain he has caused Juliet, tries to stab himself. Friar Laurence lectures Romeo and tells him what to do — go to Juliet, then to Mantua until the Prince can be persuaded to pardon him. The Nurse gives Romeo the ring that Juliet asked her to take to him. These things put Romeo into a better frame of mind and he leaves Friar Laurence’s cell to go to Juliet. -Romeo and Juliet both believe that banishment is a worse fate than death.-Friar tells Romeo angrily that he should be happy that he is alive. In his speech, he refers to Romeo often as a female.
Act 3, Scene 4: On a sudden impulse, Capulet promises Paris that Juliet will marry him the day after tomorrow.
Act 3, Scene 5: Just before dawn Romeo is preparing to leave, but Juliet declares that it’s still night, so he can stay. Romeo offers to stay and die, but Juliet urges him to leave. . . . The Nurse hurries in with the news that Juliet’s mother is coming. Romeo kisses Juliet and leaps out the window. Juliet asks if they will ever see each other again; Romeo is sure they will, but Juliet is full of foreboding. . . . Lady Capulet, assuming that Juliet is weeping for Tybalt, tells her that she’s grieving too much, then decides that Juliet must be weeping because revenge has not been taken upon Romeo. Lady Capulet expresses her hatred of Romeo and Juliet appears to agree with her, though what she really means is that she loves Romeo. Lady Capulet then delivers news which she thinks ought to cheer up Juliet — she is to be married to Paris. Juliet declares that she will not. Lady Capulet replies that Juliet’s father is coming, so Juliet ought to tell him that she won’t marry Paris, if she dares. . . . Lady Capulet tells Capulet that Juliet has refused to marry Paris. Enraged, Capulet threatens to throw her out of the house if she doesn’t change her mind. Juliet pleads with her mother to intervene, but Lady Capulet refuses. . . . Juliet asks the Nurse for advice, and she tells Juliet that she ought to marry Paris because Romeo can never come back and Paris is better looking, anyway. Juliet pretends to accept the Nurse’s advice but decides that she will go to Friar Laurence for his advice. If he can’t help her, she will kill herself. -Capulet= angry and frustrated-Lady Capulet and Nurse defend Juliet from physical/verbal attacks from Capulet-Nurse does not take Juliet’s side in her decision against Paris, and for Romeo. She tells her to marry Paris.
Act 4, Scene 1: As Paris is making arrangements with Friar Laurence to perform the wedding ceremony between himself and Juliet, she appears. Paris tries to tease some sign of affection out of Juliet and reminds her that they are to be married on Thursday. . . . Juliet says that she will kill herself rather than marry Paris, and the Friar comes up with the plan for her to take the drug which will make her appear dead for 42 hours, so that the wedding will be called off and Romeo can come and take her to Mantua.
Act 4, Scene 2: Capulet is making arrangements for the wedding feast when Juliet appears, begs her father’s pardon, and tells him that she will marry Paris. This makes Capulet so happy that he moves the wedding up to the very next day, Wednesday.
Act 4, Scene 3: In her bedchamber, Juliet asks the Nurse to let her spend the night by herself, and repeats the request to Lady Capulet when she arrives. Alone, clutching the vial given to her by Friar Lawrence, she wonders what will happen when she drinks it. If the friar is untrustworthy and seeks merely to hide his role in her marriage to Romeo, she might die; or, if Romeo is late for some reason, she might awaken in the tomb and go mad with fear. She has a vision in which she sees Tybalt’s ghost searching for Romeo. She begs Tybalt’s ghost to quit its search for Romeo, and toasting to Romeo, drinks the contents of the vial.
Act 4, Scene 4: The Capulets and their servants are busily preparing for the wedding. Paris’ musicians are heard, and Capulet sends the Nurse to awaken Juliet.
Act 4, Scene 5: The Nurse tries to awaken Juliet, but finds that she is (apparently) dead. Lady Capulet and Capulet come running, then lament their daughter’s death. . . . The rest of the wedding party arrives, only to find that Juliet is dead and hear the clamor of lamentation. Capulet, Lady Capulet, Paris, and the Nurse go nearly wild with grief, but Friar Laurence takes command of the situation by reminding everyone that Juliet is now in a better place, and telling them proceed with her funeral. . . . As the musicians are starting to leave, Peter rushes in and demands that they play a happy song to cheer him up. They refuse, Peter insults them with a riddle, and they all leave to wait for lunch.
Act 5, Scene 1: Romeo expects good news from Verona, but receives the news that Juliet is dead. He buys poison of an apothocary and says that he intends to return to Verona and join Juliet in death.
Act 5, Scene 2: Friar John explains to Friar Laurence why he was unable to deliver Friar Laurence’s letter to Romeo. Friar Laurence sends Friar John to get a crowbar and makes plans to be there when Juliet awakes, write again to Romeo in Mantua, and hide Juliet in his cell until Romeo arrives.
Act 5, Scene 3: Paris comes to Juliet’s grave to strew flowers and weep. He sends his Page a ways off, to act as a look-out. Paris promises to visit Juliet’s grave every night, then the Page whistles to warn him that someone is coming. Paris sees a torch and withdraws into the darkness to see who else has come to Juliet’s grave. . . . Romeo sends Balthasar away with a letter for Romeo’s father, and starts to open the tomb. Paris comes forward and tries to arrest Romeo. They fight, and Romeo kills Paris. As he is dying, Paris asks to be laid next to Juliet. Romeo does this, pledges his love to Juliet, takes the poison, and dies. . . . Friar Laurence comes and finds Romeo and Paris dead. Juliet awakes and Friar Laurence tries to persuade her to come out of the grave, but being afraid of being found there by the watchmen, he runs away. Juliet kills herself with Romeo’s dagger. . . . Paris’ Page brings the watchmen to the monument of the Capulets. Watchmen find Balthasar and Friar Laurence. Prince Escalus arrives, then Capulet, Lady Capulet, and Montague. Friar Laurence tells his story, which is confirmed by Balthasar, Paris’ Page, and the letter from Romeo to his father. Montague promises to build a golden statue of Juliet, and Capulet promises to build one of Romeo.
Act 5 Discussion Questions -Romeo is richer than the apothecary and believes that money is worse than poison because it causes more problems.-Juliet and her Romeo is proper because throughout book, there has been many references to Juliet possessing Romeo. Juliet suffers more than Romeo because she is forced into a marriage and she has to wake up in tomb next to dead people including her husband. Romeo, on the other hand, is free to live as he pleases outside of Verona.-Friar Lawrence had good intentions, but bad actions. -Romeo’s death soliloquy is longer because as a male, he should have more to say and he is talking to an actual sleeping person. On the other hand, Juliet was talking to an actual dead man. It adds to the drama by the audience she is alive and we are the edge our seats hoping she’ll wake up as Romeo speaks. -Romeo didn’t have beef against Paris, but killed so he can get out of his way to follow his purpose. State of mind= out of it, crazy-Juliet’s radiance: lightning: going to heaven, light before/after darkness-Faith leads Romeo to his death. “…lead my course” (boat), which was also referred to in 1.4
Metaphor Comparison without using “like” or “as””My lips two blushing pilgrims ready stand..”
Simile Comparison using “like” or “as””It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night/ Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope’s ear.”
Hyperbole Exaggeration; claims not to be taken literally.”There is no world without Verona walls, / But purgatory, torture, hell itself. (3.3.17-18)
Understatement “Ay, ay, a scratch, a scratch”
Allusion Casual reference”Well, in that hit you miss: she’ll not be hitWith Cupid’s arrow; she hath Dian’s wit”
Personification Personal features to an inanimate object”Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief That thou her maid art far more fair than she.”
Imagery The use of vivid or figurative language to represent objects, actions, or ideas.Queen Mab
Reversed Word upfillrightallnightall
Alliteration repetition of an initial consonant sound”Now old desire doth in his death-bed lie,” (Spoken by the chorus in the prologue of Act 2. The alliteration is the “d” sound.)
Assonance repetition of vowel sounds”For men so old as we to keep the peace.”- (Act I/Scene 2/Line 3)
Consonance repetition of consonant sounds”That thou”

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