Part I Chapters 1-18 Grapes of Wrath

Who is Tom Joad? -novel’s protagonist-good-natured and thoughtful and makes do with what life hands him-despite killing a man and separated from his family for four years he does not waste time on regrets-lives fully in the present -great source of vitality for the Joad family-wise guide and fierce protector, Tom exhibits moral certainty -earns awed respect -paroled after serving a four-yr prison sentence for killing a man in self-defense-strong,stoic, principled, and observant
Who is Ma Joad? -mother of the Joad family-fufills the role as the “citadel of the family”-healer of the family’s ills and the arbiter of its arguments-continuously sacrifices for her family and possess a benevolent, yet strong nature -fiercely dedicated matron of the family-confident leadership
Who is Pa Joad? Ma Joad’s husband and Tom’s father-Oklahoma tenant farmer who has been evicted from his farm-plainspoken, good-hearted man-Pa directs his efforts in taking care of his family -ashamed and guilty about Noah-easygoing head of the family-
Jim Casy -former preacher who gave up his ministry out of belief that all human experiences are holy-moral voice of the novel–afflicted by guilt for having had relations with some of the young women in his congregations
Rose of Sharon -oldest of Ma and Pa Joad’s daughters, third oldest in general, and Connie’s wife-pregnant -demure and serious body-Rosasharn
Granma Joad -pious Christian-loves casting hellfire and damnation in her husband’s direction
Al Joad -Tom’s younger brother-sixteen-yr old obsessed with cars and girls-vain and cocky but an extremely competent mechanic -his expertise proves vital in bringing the Joads to California-
Connie Rose of Sharon’s husband -gentleman-nineteen yr old-awestruck by change
Noah Joad -Tom’s older brother -slightly deformed since his birth-Pa Joad had to perform the delivery and, panicking, tried to pull him out forcibly -slow and quiet -oldest Joad child
Uncle Joad Tom’s uncle-refused to fetch a doctor for his pregnant wife when she complained of stomach pains-never forgave himself for her death-dwells heavily on his negligence he considers sin-tries to atone for his sin by living as selflessly as possible-occasionally gives in to temptation and gets drunk
Ruthie Joad -the second and younger Joad daughter -fiery and immaturecompetitive against Winfield
Winfield Joad age of ten-youngest of the Joad children
Muley Graves -one of the Joad’s Oklahoma neighbors -when the bank evicts his family, Muley refuses to leave the land-lets his wife and children move to California without him-stays behind to live outdoors-directs Tom to Uncle John’s
Grampa Joad -depraved old man-violent, impatient-reluctant to leave his home in Oklahoma
What do the animals symbolize in the chapters read so far? -people’s treatment of animals is often used to illustrate human capacity for both kindness and cruelty-land turtle: represents the unyielding resolve that the migrants display when traveling to CA–Like the Okies, the turtle is shown both kindness and malice by humans
What was Tom in prison for and for how long? -originally seven years but got paroled-four years for manslaughter
Why does Jim Casy preach any longer? -became worried about his sexual relations with girls who came to religious meetings
What does Steinbeck describe in Chapter 1? -natural elements which destroy farmer’s crops and the reaction of the people to the disaster and resulting economic hardships
What is the turtle’s most outstanding characteristic? -determination to reach its destination despite the obstacles and the set backs
What ideas did Jim Casy come up with during his thinking time? “There ain’t no sin and there ain’t no virtue. There’s just stuff people do. It’s all a part of the same thing. Maybe all men got one big soul everybody’s a part of.”
Why was Tom in jail, and what was his attitude toward his crime? Killed a man in a fight by hitting him in the head with a shovel; not sorry for it, he’d do the same thing again under the same circumstances-self defensethe other man had stabbed him
What was the Monster, and why could men not control it? CAPITALISM; the banking industry which bankers blamed for the foreclosure on the farmers, no individual man had to take responsibility for foreclosures; each could pretend to sympathize with the farmers and yet still carry out foreclosures to personally gain from bankers actions directly or indirectly
What is the first thing each of the Joads wants to know when Tom comes home? -Ma Joad asks if has gone mad -Pa Joad wonders if Tom can come with them to CA-Grampa Joad immediately favors Tom and defends him
The Joad family’s home is in…. Sallisaw,Oklahoma
In what state does the novel open? Oklahoma
What time of the year is it in Chapter One? Spring
What is the weather like? Stormy but beginning to clear up
What kind of landscape does Steinbeck describe? The countryside/a rural landscape
Who or what inhabits this landscapes? men,women, children, horses, etc
What kind of vehicle stands in front of the roadside restaurant? A red truck
What does the sticker on the vehicle’s windshield say? No Riders
What is the condition of hitchhiker’s clothes? All are new but small
What crime does the hitchhiker say he committed? Homicide
What grows along the highway? Tangled, dry grass
What animal does Steinbeck describe in the third chapter? Turtle
What does the animal crawl over? A concrete wall
When Joad see the turtle, what does he do? He picks it up and takes it with him
What is the man under the tree doing? Singing religious hymns
What might be Steinbeck’s purpose be in describing the dust? What emotions come up when he describes the farm families watching the dust cover their crops? -describes the coming of the dust in terms befitting a biblical plague-the Great Depression-However, when the storm ends, it is only the beginning of the hardship for the Oklahoma farmers. A sense of hopelessness sets in almost immediately. -Wrath is derivative of Hopelessness
How does Tom trick the truck driver? What does this tell us about Tom? What else do we learn about Tom in this chapter? -The man claims that sometimes a guy will do a good thing even when a rich bastard makes him carry a sticker, and the driver, feeling trapped by the statement, lets the man have a ride. -unsparingly critical of business and the rich-clothing is recently prison-issued: it does not quite fit him, it is far too formal he walks down the road alone, wearing a suit, and is as yet spotless
How are the physical descriptions of the turtle and Jim Casy similar? What else might Casy and the turtle have in common? -turtle is a metaphor for the working class farmers whose stories and struggles are recounted- Casy is described physically like a turtle. “…a long head, bony, tight skin, and set on a neck as stringy and muscular as a celery stalk”-Casy is also first “mentioned” whilst singing a Christian song. This shows how truly oxymoronic his character is, as he longs to break free of his “preacher life,” yet at the same time he’s still hung up on his past
There are at least three ways that Jim Casy is like Jesus Christ. List examples -Casy was hailed and respected by many just for being a preacher-Jesus was exalted by many for what he stood for and who he was supposed to be (shared popularity)-Despite Casy’s honesty, goodness, and loyalty to all men, he was alone and hungry before Tom came-Jesus, despite his good nature, had many oppositions that remained til the very end (shared hardships)-Casy wants to go to CA because he wants to reach out to others despite his necessities- Jesus is considered a great consoler (shared selflessness)
Who is Joe Davis’ boy? Willy Feeley
What might be the significance of the name, “Muley”? stubborn like a mule
dissipated v. to scatter in various places/disperse/dispel
listless adj. lacking energy or enthusiasm
protuded v. extend beyond or above a surface
homicide the deliberate and unlawful killing of one person by another
declivity n. a downwards slope
hypocrite n. a person who indulges in hypocrisy-a person who pretends to have virtues, moral, or relgious beliefs, principles that she/he does not actually possess, ecpecially a person whose actions belie stated beliefs
assailed v. to make a concerted or violent attack
fatuously adv. silly or pointlessly
eminent adj. of a person: famous and respected within a particular sphere or profession
tributary n. a river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake
caravan n. a vehicle equipped for living in, typically towed by a car and used for vacations
truculent adj. eager or quick to argue or fight, aggressively defiant
ravenously adv. of hunger or need: voraciousextremely hungry
lithely adj. esp of person’s body: thin, supple, graceful
citadel n. fortress, typically high ground, protecting and dominating the city
arbiter n. person who settles a dispute or has ultimate authority in a matter
rakishly dashing, jaunty: suggesting speed
How does the land turtle foreshadow events in the story? -symbolic depiction of the farmer’s plights-the universe is full of obstacles that fill life with harship and danger-like the turtle that trudges across the road, the Joad family eill be called upon, time and again, to fight the malicious forces of drought, industry, jealousy, famine, and loss-and will seek to “overturn” it
Who is Albert Rance? -went to Oklahoma City one Christmas and when he returned to his house-he found it ransacked -tried to receive all his stolen items-Grampa kept the pillow
What advice did Tom give Ma about worrying about the future? -Take it one day at a time/ not to be too optimistic-“Look Ma, stop your worryin’. I’m a-gonna tell you somepin about being in the pen. You can’t got thinkin’ when you’re gonna be out. You’d go nuts. You got to think about that day, an’then the nex’ day, about the ball game Sat’day…,”
What does Pa say about Jim Casy’s coming along with the family? What does Ma say? Does Casy go? Pa: wonders if they can feed another personMa: says that the Joads never refuse food, shelter, or a lift to anyone who asksCasy joins them on their journey”But I’m wondering if we can all ride, an’ the preacher too. An’kin we feed a extra mouth. […] Kin we, Ma?” […] “An’ as for as will–it’s a long time out folks been here and east before, an’ I never heerd tell no Joads or no Hazletts, neither, ever refusin’ food an’ shelter or a life on the road to anybody that asked…,”
How did Tom and Ma get Grampa into the truck even though he didn’t want to go? -laced some coffee with sleeping medicine-fell asleep and the Joads put him in the truck
Who all headed West on the Joad truck? Ma, Pa, Tom, Al, Uncle John, Rose of Sharon, Connie, Ruthie, Winfield, Noah, Grampa, Granma, Jim Casy, and one dog
What does Ma do with the last few of her personal things, and why does she do it? -she brought out her stationary box, old, soiled and cracked at the corners-inside was : letters, clippings, photographs, a pair of earrings, a little gold signet ring, and a watch chain–braided with hair and tipped with gold swivels-“She picked out the ring, the watch charm, the earrings, and dug under the pile and found one gold cuff link. She took a letter from an envelope abd dropped the trinkets in the envelope.-laid the box among the coals of the stove-sacrifice of the family
How are Grampa and Muley Graves similar? -both Muley and Grampa Joad represent the human reluctance to be separated from their land-both located their roots in Oklahoma soil-both willing to abandon their families to maintain this connection-can’t imagine themselves beyond the boundaries that have shaped and defined them
What does Steinbeck describe in Chapter 11? -even though men continue to work the land, they have no real connection with their work-lose wonder for their work and for the land-deterioration of work ethic and connection with the land
Why do the travelers keep going on the road to CA despite the rumors of no work? -thought the hardships of the road bring ugliness, it can also yield unexpected beauty-hope
wizened adjshriveled or wrinkled with age
Ivy Wilson farmer from Kansas, headed west, car broke down along the highway
Sairy Wilson Ivy Wilson’s wife-shows strains of travelbenevolent cancer
Which of the passengers on the Joad truck was the first to be left behind? -the dog-hit by a swerving car -dog dies and Joads are less saddened by its death b/c its associated needs would have to be met-the truculent fat man at the gas station claims he will bury it for the Joads-loss is inevitable
Who are the Wilsons? Ivy and Sairy Wilson-migrant couple whom the Joads encounter on the road to CA-hospitable to the Joads-let Grampa die in their tent -decide to travel together
How do the Joads and the Wilsons help each other? -Wilsons: -Grampa begins to feel sick and the Wilsons let him relax in the tent -dies of stroke-lent Grampa their tent-allowed their quilt to be used as a shroudJoads;-Al repairs the Wilson’s car -set out for CA together -agree to divide the possessions within both cars-reimperuse the loss of the quilt for another quilt or money
For what three reasons do the Joads decide to bury Grampa themsleves? -Grampa loved the land but they needed to continue forwards-reporting grampa’s death legally requires a $40 fee-fiercely loyal to family: would never allow a stranger to bury their kin-being cramped in the back of the jalopy would not be healthy-too proud to have him given a pauper’s grave
How does Chapter 14 herald the formation of a new society, with a new attitude among the migrants? -signals change from “I” to “we”-foreshadows a self-governing solidarity among the migrants-amid the deluge of poor farmers, the citizens of the western states are frightened and on edge-fear that the dislocated farmers will come together -weak but when united will become strong–strong enough to stage a revolt
Themes -The bondage bet. land and the people-the effects of technology-casting off old ways-The Human Family
Big Bill generous truck driver-knows Mae
Mae waitress at the shopcalls the rich “shitheels”
Al the cookmoody but quiet
Santa Rosa where Al and Tom go to get the con-rod
The one-eyed man doesn’t wear an eye patchmoans about how mean his boss is and about how he never gets to go on dates-tom advises the one-eyed man to get an eye-patch, take a shower, fix up one of the broken-down cars, and go seek his fortune
The ragged man -talks about how terrible conditions are in California, telling the group that there are no jobs and that everyone is miserable there-Unable to find work in California, the stranger’s wife and two children had starved to death
vivaciousness adj. esp of a womanattractively lively and animated
languid displaying or having disinclination for physical exertion or effort-slow and relaxed
morosely sullen or ill-tempered
lanky ungracefully thin and tall
querulously complaining in a petulant or whining manner
What plans have Connie and Rose of Sharon made? -excited by the opportunity urban life offers-motion pictures-hospitals (have an actual doctor)-business-small house-Connie will study at night and work towards owning a business-Ma doesn’t push her objection of separating the family b/c she knows that Rose of Sharon is only dreaming
What is Al’s attitude problem? -Al’s ashamed -takes the car’s failure as an indication of his incompetence -lashes out on Tom when Tom insinuates that Al may have been responsible for the breakdown-feels guilt when bad things happen that are out of his control
Why does Ma revolt? -fears the family’s separation-Ma challenges Pa’s authority by refusing to go along-stresses the importance of family staying together-willing to challenge leadership in order to ensure family sticks together
What discouraging news did the ragged man give Pa? -he is on his way back to California -Joad’s search for work will likely be fruitless-handbill is designed to yield far too many workers so that the employers can exploit the workers who show up
ostacism the act of exluding someone from a society or a group
vehemence vehement: showing strong feeling, forceful, passionate, intense
exhortation an address or communication emphatically urging someone to do something
decorous keeping with good taste and prepriety, polite and restrained
awestruck filling with or revealing awe
What code developed in the camps? What were the punishments for breaking it? -right of privacy of tent-the right to keep the past black hidden in the heart-right to talk or to listen-to refuse help or to accept it-to offer help or decline it-right of son to court and daughter to be courted-right for the hungry to be fed-rights of the preg and the sick transcend all other rughts-unlawful to foul near camp or drinking water -unlawful to eat good rich food near one who is hungry uncless asked to share-collaborative system to preserve individual honor and dignity-punishments: quick murderous fight or ostracism-lose protection, support, and connection of the group
What did Pa and TOm learn from the men in the river? -the returining migrants warn that the fertile country of CA -cautions the JOads about open hositility of people who derisively call them “Okies”-the wastefulness of ranchers with a million acres-arable land often lies fallow-migrants are punished for cultivating it
To what decision did NoAH COME? -NOAH tells tom that he can no longer go on-entranced by the water of the Colorado River-doesn’t value family as strongly as the Joads-asocial existence-claims his absence will not really hurt the family-although his parents treat him with kindness they did not love him deeply-stays behind
Man’s Inhumanity to Man -the migrants’ great suffering is caused not by bad weather or mere misfortune but by their fellow human beings- Historical, social, and economic circumstances separate people into rich and poor, landowner and tenant, and the people in the dominant roles struggle viciously to preserve their positions-Chapter 19, Steinbeck portrays the state as the product of land-hungry squatters who took the land from Mexicans and, by working it and making it produce, rendered it their own. Now, generations later, the California landowners see this historical example as a threat, since they believe that the influx of migrant farmers might cause history to repeat itself. In order to protect themselves from such danger, the landowners create a system in which the migrants are treated like animals, shuffled from one filthy roadside camp to the next, denied livable wages, and forced to turn against their brethren simply to survive-simple line through the population—one that divides the privileged from the poor—and identifies that division as the primary source of evil and suffering in the world.
The Saving Power of Family and Fellowship -J-oads are joined by blood, the text argues that it is not their genetics but their loyalty and commitment to one another that establishes their true kinship- life on the road demands that new connections and new kinships be formed-Joads meet the Wilsons. In a remarkably short time, the two groups merge into one, sharing one another’s hardships and committing to one another’s survival-n the face of adversity, the livelihood of the migrants depends upon their union
The Dignity of Wrath -emphasizes the importance of maintaining self-respect in order to survive spiritually- Joads have suffered incomparable losses: Noah, Grampa, Granma, and the Wilsons- people maintain a sense of injustice—a sense of anger against those who seek to undercut their pride in themselves—they will never lose their dignity
The Multiplying Effects of Selfishness and Altruism -many of the evils that plague the Joad family and the migrants stem from selfishness-Simple self-interest motivates the landowners and businessmen to sustain a system that sinks thousands of families into poverty-emphasizes self-interest and altruism as equal and opposite powers, evenly matched in their conflict with each other-In Chapter 13, we learn that corporate gas companies have preyed upon the gas station attendant that the Joads meet. The attendant, in turn, insults the Joads and hesitates to help them. Then, after a brief expository chapter, the Joads immediately happen upon an instance of kindness as similarly self-propagating: Mae, a waitress, sells bread and sweets to a man and his sons for drastically reduced prices. Some truckers at the coffee shop see this interchange and leave Mae an extra-large tip.

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