Othello Acts 1-3 Test

Act One: Scene 1 -We Do Not Hear Othello’s Name in the First Exchange between Roderigo and Iago (referred to by a derogatory term)IAGO: proudly says he knows his worth–> recommended by 3 noblemenIAGO: Angry because Cassio is not a soldier but a StrategistRODERIGO: If you don’t like Othello then Don’t follow him!IAGO: must keep Othello close so he can manipulate him (appearing dutiful)Iago’s Plan: Go to Desdemona’s House and say that she was taken by Othello- Othello and Desdemona’s devil baby (presents Othello as a beast)-We Learn that Roderigo goes to Desdemona’s House Frequently-Brabantio DOES NOT KNOW that Iago is a part of the ConversationBrabantio: thought Des liked being single-thinks she was drugged/sorcery?
Act One: Scene 2 Iago Pretends he Doesn’t Like Roderigo/Brabantio- Iago wanted to “hit Roderigo”Othello (Confidently) Defends Himself:1) Royal Blood and Esteemed General2) Truly loves Des and thinks Love is enough to escape accusation3) Believes he has nothing to hideCypress NEEDS OthelloIago Pretends to fight RoderigoBrabantio thinks Des was Drugged:-cannot understand that she would ever love a black manOthello wants to speak w/ the Duke (believes the Duke will support him)
Act One: Scene 3 Setting: Impeding Conflict w/ Turks-Turks went to Rhodes for fleetsDespite Brabantio’s higher status he=afterthought because Othello is More NEEDEDDukes Response: NO questions b/c Brab’s powerFIRST–> law will be enforcedAFTER LEARNING IT’S OTHELLO–> Hear him outOthello: apologizes for not being poeticBrabantio’s perception of Des: submissive, shy1) How can she Love O if she was afraid of him?2) Clearly does not know DesdemonaDuke: Needs “proof”-Othello bets his own life–> confident of Des’s loyaltyOthello and Brab are actually close friendsLove Story: Des listened to his stories1) showed empathy/passion for OthelloDesdemona sought HIM out–> unusual-Brab is in DenialFirst Time we Meet Des:1) Confident2) MATURE–> concept of duty/virtueBrabantio Disowns Desdemona1) Duke: let time pass, move on!2) calls out Brab on his RacismDuke is Desperate to Get Othello to Cypress:1) Des SPEAKS UP and says she will go w/ Othello b/c respects her fatherOthello’s FLAW: trusts Iago so much that gives him Des to take care of (his most precious thing)Iago and Roderigo are still in the roomRoderigo: Whiny, SuicidalIago: He never really had Des, so why is he emotional?Iago’s MANIPULATION of Roderigo: 1) can get him Des but Needs Roderigo’s Money2) Uses Roderigo’s money for himselfIago’s Plan:1) Convince Othello of Cassio and Des2) Exploit Othello’s trusting nature
Act Two: Scene 1 Setting: Cypress, weeks have gone by-Battle Never Happens, Turks are killed in StormMontano Praises Othello–> Othello is Highly RespectedCassio–> Flirtatious with EVERY Woman (Florentine Etiquette)1) Iago Manipulates this2) “foils” IagoIago thinks Emilia is a Nag/Bother: MACHIAVELLI MORALITYIago’s New Plan: Get Rod to Provoke Cassio and start a fight=Cassio fired1) Gives hope to Roderigo
Act Two: Scene 2 Setting: No Impending War=Time for CelebrationFrom 5-11, everyone is partying (no work)Potential Issues: Drunk People=fights
Act Two: Scene 3 Othello Puts Cassio in Charge–> warns him to be carefulBoth Othello and Cassio are BLIND to Iago’s manipulationIago Start Suggestive Conversation about Des1) Cassio keeps going back to delicate beautyCassio Does not handle Alcohol Well–> Iago will Exploit ThisIago Tries to Get Everyone Drunk so he can Manipulate ThemMontano’s Perception of Cassio: drunk and incompetentIago send Roderigo to get Othello:1) Cassio and Montano fight*Public Iago–> looks like he wants peace-When Othello shows up, THEN he stops the fight*Othello is Upset: Cypress was at war THAT MORNING!–> disrespectful, rude to ring warning bellOthello asks Iago who began the fight:1) Iago pretends to respect CassioCassio is FIRED1) Distraught over losing his reputation2) Iago doesn’t believe in reputationsCassio is No Longer Drunk: he feels disgusted w/ himselfIago’s tells Cassio to speak w/ DesdemonaIago is not a Villain b/c:1) his advice is reasonable2) he states only facts–> Othello WILL Do anything Des saysIago’s Plan: Des will help cassio1) Iago will tell Othello Des and Cassio are together2) Use Des’s goodness against herRoderigo: giving up and thinks money went to wasteIago: Rod needs to be patient1) will get Emilia to convince Des of Cassio’s case
Act Three: Scene 1 Cassio brings Musicians to wake up Othello but they get sent awayCassio tells Emilia to send a message to DesIago LIES: syays he will distract Othello while Des and Cassio talkEmilia hears Othello say he will reinstate Cassio soon1) Cassio is unsatisfied
Act Three: Scene 2 Othello gives Iago letters for the pilots of ships returning to Venice1) Iago is going to tour the fortifications around a fortress
Act Three: Scene 3 Des tells Cassio that Othello wants to Reinstate him but cannot due to politics1) Cassio: his absence will soon be forgotten/replacedDes Promises: she will constantly bring up Cassio until Othello cavesCassio Quickly Leaves:1) Iago makes this seem suspicious to OthelloOthello is annoyed but says he will help Cassion for Des:1) DES RESPONDS: it is not a favor but rather a proper strategic movew/o love, Othello and Des are jokes of societyIago asks if Cassio was aware of Othello and Des’s Love:1) Cassio and Des met a lotOthello is Annoyed b/c Iago is Hiding Something:1) Iago acts guilty and says he “always sees the bad anyways”Iago says Reputation is Valuable–> CONTRADICTS HIMSELFOthello won’t be jealous or doubtful w/o proofIago thinks all Venetian women are sneaky1) says she will soon compare Othello to other men and regret her decisionOthello thinks Des will cheat b/c:1) he is black2) he is old3) he lacks social graceEmilia steals Des’s handkerchief for Iago1) abusive relationshipIago’s Plan: “lose” handkerchief in Cassio’s room and let Othello find it1) Iago tells Othello he say Cassio using the handkerchief recently2) says Cassio talks about Des in his sleepIago will kill Cassio but Des must live1) Iago will be rewarded as becoming a lieutenant
Act Three: Scene 4 Des asks a Clown to tell Cassio that the plan is WorkingDes Does not think Othello could ever be jealousDes’s FLAW: she is too givingOthello takes Des’s hand:1) she is too giving to others2) she needs to become secludedOthello gets ANOTHER headache but Des has lost handkerchief:1) Power to make a woman lovable2) WITHOUT IT: stop love and start cheating3) Dyed with the fluid of Dead Virgin Hearts–> Symbol of Des’s loss of chastityDas thinks Othello’s only issue is with Cassio’s reinstatementEmilia’s view of men: they become bored and then leaveIago send Cassio to talk to DesDes recognizes Othello’s odd Behavior:1) Blames it on politics/stressBianca is one of Cassio’s lovers:1) jealous of him having a handkerchiefCassio asks Bianca to make a copy of the handkerchief he found in his room
Figurative Language 1) Old Black Ram–> Racist METAPHOR2) Barbary Horse–> Racist METAPHOR for black bestial children3) Brabantio’s Dream–> FORESHADOWING4) Janus–> ALLUSION and IRONY5) Brab says Des is deceptive–> FORESHADOWS6) Both Othello and Cassio are BLIND to Iago–> DRAMATIC IRONY7) He’s a soldier fit to stand by Caesar–> Cassio is going to betray Othello–> ALLUSION8) Emilia and Des think Iago is honest–> IRONY9) Clown lie v. lie–> PUNS
Shakespearean Tragedy Definition: a story of exceptional calamity, leading to the death of a man of high estate1) Usually only one tragic hero (Love Tragedy is the exception)2) Story depicts troubled part of a hero’s life which precedes and leads up to his death3) Tragic Dilemma–> those w/ good intentions deceive themselves into believing that noble ideals justify any means used no matter how violent
Characteristics of a Shakespearean Tragedy -leads up to/includes the death of the hero-suffering and calamity are exceptional 1)unexpected 2)contrasted with previous happiness/glory-catastrophe of monumental proportions-calamities of tragedy proceed from ACTIONS-tragic heroes are RESPONSIBLE for the catastrophe of their falls-Invoke pity/fear within the audience
Definition of a Tragic Hero -potential for greatness but is doomed to fail-trapped in a losing situation-possesses a tragic FLAW that causes his fall from greatness- despite being a fallen hero, still WINS A MORAL VICTORY, spirit lives on
Tragic Heroes are: 1) Born into Nobility2) Exceptional Humans–> NOT ORDINARY3) Responsible for their Own Fate4) Tragic FLAW5) Doomed to make a serious error in judgement
Eventually, all Tragic Heroes: 1) Fall from greatness2) Realize their irreversible mistake3) Face and Accept Death with HONOR4) Meet a Tragic Death (usually Suicide)
Literary Devices Drama-story written to be performedACT ONE: ExpositionACT TWO: Rising ActionACT THREE: ClimaxSoliloquy: character speaks thoughts aloud, aloneMonologue: speech by one character to othersAside: character to the audience/characterDramatic Foil: qualities contrast another charactersComic Relief: inclusion of humor to relieve intensityDramatic Irony: reader sees something different than the charactersSituational Irony: what happens v. what’s expectedVerbal Irony: language to say opposite of literalParadox: contradictory statement that appears truePun: play on sounds of words w/ meaning
Facts about Othello 1) Venice was seen as a “free state”, people were free from prosecution2) Venice was exotic. corrupt, dangerous, as well as beautiful/cultured3) Othello is a Muslim converted to Christianity4) *Iago=MACHIAVELLIAN MORALITY character who practices evil for its own sake (serves themselves despite any repercussions)