Macbeth flashcards Women were those most often accused of being witches. There were 270 Elizabethan witch trials of 247 were women and only 23 were men. Those accused of witchcraft were generally:OldPoorUnprotectedSingle women or widows (many kept pets for company – their ‘familiars’) Women were expected to produce cures for most ailments as part of their house keeping. ‘Wise women’ also used herbs for this purpose. The use of herbs and plants such as mandrake, datura, monkshood, cannabis, belladonna, henbane and hemlock were common ingredients in brews and ointments for medical purposes. As the fear of witches and witchcraft increased in Europe the Catholic Church included in its definition of witchcraft anyone with knowledge of herbs as ‘those who used herbs for cures did so only through a pact with the Devil, either explicit or implicit. During the Elizabethan era people blamed unexplainable events as the work of witches. Shakespeare composed Macbeth in 1605 or 1606, using Holinshed’s Chronicles as his source, to please his new king. The first witch then plans the harm she will cause the woman’s husband, a sailor on a ship, and the three witches cast a spell or ‘charm’ in retaliation (1.3.37). In Shakespeare’s England, this alleged practice was known as ‘mischief following anger’, and it was one of the most common charges against suspected witches in cases brought to trial. In Shakespeare’s England, anxiety about witchcraft and belief in magic and the supernatural were not limited to the lower or uneducated classes. Macbeth is a powerful man of high estate, and though at times he questions the validity of the three witches and their prophecies, he ultimately accepts the potential of witchcraft and magic. One of Queen Elizabeth’s courtiers, Sir Walter Ralegh, described witches as women controlled by the Devil. But others, such as Reginald Scot, author of The Discoverie of Witchcraft, were far more sceptical; Scot argued against the existence of supernatural witchcraft and claimed that some accused witches were women with mental illness while others may have been con artists. While some women, like the witches of Macbeth, attempted to use practices such as image magic to harm, many others executed for witchcraft in Shakespeare’s England did not engage in any practices associated with witchcraft or magic at all. In Shakespeare’s time people believed in witches. They were people who had made a pact with the Devil in exchange for supernatural powers. If your cow was ill, it was easy to decide it had been cursed. If there was plague in your village, it was because of a witch. King James I became king in 1603. He was particularly superstitious about witches and even wrote a book on the subject. Shakespeare wrote Macbeth especially to appeal to James – it has witches and is set in Scotland, where he was already king. On account of the fascination and fear of preternatural creatures, and the persecution of witches and in Elizabethan England, Shakespeare included an abundance of supernatural elements into his works. The witchery exhibited in Macbeth, (written around 1600-1606), is arguably a reflection of the societal climate of Europe at the time it was composed-An era where witches evoked feelings of major suspicion and panic, yet were also intriguing. he overall tone of the play and the correlation between the witchcraft of Macbeth and the society of Elizabethan England is best explained by William Shakespeare himself through the Three Witches, “Fair is foul, and foul is fair. Hover through the fog and filthy air,” (Shakespeare, I, i, 12-13).
macbeth How far is’t call’d to Forres? What are theseSo wither’d and so wild in their attire,That look not like the inhabitants o’ the earth,And yet are on’t? Live you? or are you aughtThat man may question? You seem to understand me,By each at once her choppy finger layingUpon her skinny lips. You should be women,And yet your beards forbid me to interpretThat you are so…
macbeth MACBETH. Speak, if you can. What are you?FIRST WITCH. All hail, Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Glamis!SECOND WITCH. All hail, Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor!THIRD WITCH. All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be King hereafter!…And to Banquo they say:THIRD WITCH. Hail!FIRST WITCH. Lesser than Macbeth, and greater.SECOND WITCH. Not so happy, yet much happier.THIRD WITCH. Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none.So all hail, Macbeth and Banquo!
macbeth ALL Fair is foul, and foul is fair;Hover through the fog and filthy air.
macbeth I’ll drain him dry as hay.Sleep shall neither night nor day Hang upon his penthouse lid.He shall live a man forbid.Weary sev’nnights, nine times nine,Shall he dwindle, peak, and pine.Though his bark cannot be lost,Yet it shall be tempest-tossed.
macbeth Double, double toil and trouble;Fire burn, and cauldron bubble.

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