Macbeth, Act IV

assonance -the repetition of similar vowel sounds followed by different consonant sounds in words that are close together-differs from exact rhyme in that it does not repeat the same consonant sound following the vowel.-ex:”Double, double, toil and trouble;Fire burn and caldron bubble.”
first apparition an armed head (head with a helmet on it) an armed head-“Beware Macduff!”, warning-fulfillment=Macduff kills Macbeth
Macbeth’s reaction to first apparition Fears Macduff
second apparition -a bloody child-no one born of women will harm Macbeth-he thinks no person will harm him, but they just said beware of Macduff-creates overconfidence (mortal’s worst enemy)-fulfilled=Macduff was untimely ripped by his mother’s womb-c-section
Macbeth’s reaction to 2nd apparition confident
third apparition a child with a crown on its head and a tree branch in its hand-Macbeth will never be defeated until Birnam Wood (name of forest at bottom of hill and Macbeth’s castle on top of hill) comes up the hill to the castle-creates more overconfidence because a forest can’t go up a hill-fulfilled=Malcolm telling soldiers to cut tree branch as they march up Dunsinane hill, looks like it is happening
Macbeth’s reaction to 3rd apparition confident, unlikely this could happen
not apparition-but thing witches show him long line of kings with Banquo and king at end holding a mirror -reflection of mirror has all kings in the future, images keep coming up with more and more kings-shows that Banquo will be father of many kings-represents his sons-fulfillment of witches prophecy -fulfilled=prophecy that Banquo will father kings even though he won’t be one
The mirror represents what? the descendants of Banquo who will be future kings, according to the witches’ prediction
Response to Macbeth’s asking about Banquo’s descendants eight kings and Banquo, last king with a mirror in his hand
Macbeth trusts the witches”Infected by the air whereon they ride/And damned all those that trust them!” irony-because he curses himself because he believes what the witches say even though he says anyone who trusts them will go to hell-when he hears Macduff has gone to England he decides to kill his family
Where is Macduff and why is he there? He has fled to England to gather forces to overthrow Macbeth.
lady Macduff calls Macduff a traitor -for leaving his wife and children defenseless -she says the honest men will hang him, he says well they’re fools-murderer comes in and kills his wife, children, and servants
Lady Macduff tells her son traitors are… liars and swearers
Macduff’s wife, children, and servants are all… murdered.
Personification/metaphor for Scotland -“i think our country sinks beneath the yoke” -“It weeps it bleeds, with each new day a gash, is added to her wounds”-Scotland is like a woman who’s been repeatedly stabbed and everyday has new wounds
convo between Macduff and Malcolm -he says he’s worse than Macbeth because he would take all the women-Macduff responds with saying that they have plenty of woman who would accomodate you-Malcolm would take all their lands, homes, and wealth-Macduff says greed is worse than lust but they have enough to supply all the wealth you would want, yes this is bad but still not as bad as Macbeth-Malcolm says he’ll take all of your wealth and supplies–Macduff says that’s still not so bad and we have plenty-Malcolm says he’s ruin the peace of Scotland, he’d turn everything into an uproar -Macduff says not only should you not be able to rule, but you shouldn’t be allowed to live because you just said that -Malcolm says he was just pretending all of that, none of it is true, in fact, he’s had all these men come to overthrow macbeth-he’s 100% for Scotland, he isn’t lustful or full of Avarice or destroy the peace of Scotland-he was testing to see is Macduff is loyal because if Malcolm had gone along with it all he would have known he wasn’t -Doctor says King can’t be helped with medicine-condition too severe-he’s a foil to Macbeth because he does everything he should
Malcolm tests Macduff’s loyalty to Scotland by saying that Malcolm would be a worse king than Macbeth. Why? Malcolm says he would abuse the women and take all of the land. Also, he would turn peace into an uproar.
What does Malcolm tell Macduff when he is sure of his loyalty? An army is ready to attack Macbeth.
“no, they were all well at peace when I did leave them.” dramatic rony
“Let not your ears despise my tongue forever,” Example of synecdoche, Ross’s words before telling Macduff his wife, children, and servants have been murdered-meaning don’t shoot the messenger-talking about how Ross didn’t want Macduff to hate him because he was going to give him such bad news about his family-Malcolm says to use his grief to kill Macbeth and Macduff says he has to greave first before he can
What does Macduff mean, “O, I could play the woman with mine eyes”? He needs to grieve, to cry.
synecdoche a part represents a whole (diff from metonymy because flag is not physical part of country)ex: head represents whole body-ending the life (act 5)
Macduff is in pain and says Macbeth can’t know pain because he doesn’t have children Malcolm uses this to try and convince him to kill Macbeth
On whom will Macduff take revenge for the deaths of his family and servants? Macbeth
What has happened to Scotland during Macbeth’s time as king? Many have died, so there are many new widows and orphans; Scotland is like a stabbed woman who “weeps, [she] bleeds, and each new day a gash / Is added to her wounds.”
What does the witches’ brew represent? The conditions in Scotland
“Something wicked this way comes.” Second witch, commenting on Macbeth’s arrival
-“.. waves / Confound and swallow navigation up;” -all of Macbeth’s speech (example of…?) pathetic fallacy