Lord of the Flies (chapters 1-4)

Why is the chapter entitled “The Sound of the Shell”? Because they discover the conch and use it to call everyone to the beach. The conch symbolizes authority and parliamentary order.
What is Ralph’s attitude toward Piggy in the first chapter? He is indifferent to piggy. Ralph doesn’t need Piggy’s intelligence at the moment. Piggy is pathetically eager to gain Ralph’s friendship.
What is the significance of Piggy’s plea to join the expedition? Everyone thinks he’s weak and useless but he wants to help. Jack tells Piggy “No, you can’t come!” Ralph uses responsible authority by politely telling him no and telling him to take names.
Why is Ralph elected chief? He had a natural leadership about him and he had the conch.
What is the “scar” that is repeatedly mentioned? Where the plane crashed and it represents the evil the boys bring with them to an otherwise peaceful island.
Why is Jack unable to kill the pig? He is not yet ruthless enough to kill without mercy.
What do Piggy, Simon, and the littlun with the birthmark have in common? The weakness of civilization compared to the looming threat of savagery present on the island. Piggy has asthma, Simon has epilepsy, and the littlun has a birthmark. They are deemed weak, reemphasizing the theme survival of the fittest.
How is Jack presented to the reader? He believes himself to be superior to the others and abuses authority, he is arrogant, and he expects unquestioning obedience. He sulks when he is not voted leader.
Why did Golding use British school boys? The British school boys are the most formal, are from well bred families, and are considered more civilized than others.
How is Piggy revealed as most closely tied to the world of adults? He always talks about his auntie and how adults would make things better and his focus is always on rescue.
How is Piggy indirectly responsible for the blowing of the conch? He taught Ralph how to blow the conch.
What question does the littlun with the birthmark raise? He asks if there is a beastie on the island. Up until now, the boys have considered this a good island.
How do Ralph and Jack answer the question about the beast? Ralph says it’s not real but Jack wanted to believe.
What is the significance of the chapter’s title “Fire on the Mountain”? They made a fire on top of the mountain so ships and planes can see the smoke. They lost a littlun.
How do they start the fire? They use piggy’s specks.
What is the significance of the title, “Huts on the Beach”? Desire to preserve civilization amongst them. The shelters represent civilized behavior.
Why does Ralph reproach Jack? Because Jack and his hunters were to busy hunting and let the fire go out and while it was out a ship passed by. Jack was more concerned about hunting for meat than being rescued.
What two groups with differing goals are emerging? Savages vs. sane, aided by Simon and piggy, tries to maintain order, and jack and his hunter have almost forgotten about rescue and are too busy hunting for pigs.
Why does Simon go to his bower? To get away from the hostility on the beach and to think and be in silence. Simon is the only good character, and in his bower he appreciates the loveliness of nature.
What is the significance of the title “Painted Faces and Long Hair”? It shows how the boys have slipped out of civilized thinking and are falling into savagery. It shows how they conceal their identity behind the paint.
Why does Roger, throwing stones at the littluns, aim just to miss? Because he is nothing but evil and he wants to show his dominance over the littluns by driving fear into them. It is foreshadowing Piggy’s death and is prevented by civilization to hurt them.
What definite stand does Ralph make? He blames Jack and the hunters for letting the fire go out and scolds them for perceiving hunting as more important than being rescued.
Why does Jack refuse to give Piggy meat? He didn’t hunt and also he showed how little he cared about Piggy’s well being and he was being deliberately cruel.
What is the significance of the title “Beast from the water”? They are losing logical reasoning and becoming superstitious. The boys also realize there is evil on the island.
What is the paradox of the boys’ attitude toward the beast? They fear confrontation with beast and they always want to fight with the beast, but they are the beast and therefore are always confronting him and fighting him.
Why does Ralph call a meeting? Initially, they called it to ensure hospitality of the island by maintaining a standard of hygiene. They also called it to inform the rest of the frightened boys on the island that their suspicions may be justifiable but to ensure their safety, they will fight the beast to its ghastly end. Jack mocks Ralph and the conch at the meeting.
Why does Piggy dissuade Ralph from giving up his position of chief? The alternative is to have a cruel, despicable totalitarian ruler who demands utter compliance without a speck of doubt. Plus, Piggy realizes that Jack won’t let him survive once he becomes chief.

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