Hamlet Passage 1 Act 1, scene 2

Irony The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning; or, incongruity between what is expected and what actually occurs
Alliteration The repetition of initial sounds in successve or neighboring words
Paradox An apparently contradictory statement that actually contains some truth
Euphemism An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
Hyperbole Intentional exaggeration to create an effect
Litotes A type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite (describing a particularly horrible scene by saying, “It was not a pretty picture.”)
Metonymy Substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with (“The pen [writing] is mighter than the sword [war/fighting]”)
Syllepsis A construction in which one word is used in two different senses (“After he threw the ball, he threw a fit.”)
Chiasmus A statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is strutrally reversed (“Susan walking in, and out rushed Mary”)
Synecdoche Using one part of an object to represent the entire object (for example, referring to a car simply as “wheels”)
Pun A play on words, often achieved through the use of similar sounds but different meanings
Allusion A reference to something literary, mythological, or historical the author assumes the reader will recognize
Metaphor A dircect comparrison of two different things
Symbol An object that is used to represent something else
Oxymoron An expression in which words that contradict each other are joined