Hamlet Act 1

What is exposition? backstory
Backstory of Denmark. 1. King Hamlet was married to Gertrude2. His brother was King Claudius3. Son of Hamlet and Gertrude was Prince Hamlet4. Hamlet was away at college in Wittenburg when he was told his dad was sick; when he arrived his dad was dead5. His mom remarried to King Hamlet’s brother Claudius and Hamlet is appalled
Backstory of Norway. 1. King Fortinbras was married to an unnamed woman2. When he died the rightful heir to the throne was his son Prince Fortinbras3. Prince Fortinbras was too young when he died to take the throne 4. King Fortinbras brother inherited the throne instead; when the prince was of age he didn’t give up the throne5. The Prince was upset by this and blamed Denmark for it and wants revenge
Who is Polonius? He is the Lord of the court and an advisor to King Claudius. He is also the father of Laertes and Ophelia.
Who said this quote and what did it mean, “Though yet of Hamlet our dear brother’s deathThe memory be green, and that it us befittedTo bear our hearts in grief, and our whole kingdomTo be contracted in one brow of woe;Yet so far hath discretion fought with natureThat we with wisest sorrow think on him,Together with remembrance of ourselves.Therefore our sometime sister, now our queen,Th’ imperial jointress to this warlike state,Have we, as ’twere with a defeated joy,—With an auspicious and one dropping eye,With mirth in funeral, and with dirge in marriage,In equal scale weighing delight and dole,—Taken to wife; King Claudius; what’s meant by this is he acknowledged that-yes, the wound from the old king dying is still fresh and it’s okay for the kingdom to feel grief, but they will also feel happy about his new marriage to Gertrude. This King is blunt, not gentle, telling them how to feel
Who said this and what does it mean, “A little more than kin, and less than kind!” Hamlet’s first line in the play and he says it aside/saracastically; everything you need to know about Hamlet’s personality; sarcasticHe uses buried languageHamlet acknowledges they may be related (more than family) but they are NOT the same
Who said this and what does it mean, “Good Hamlet, cast thy nighted colour off,Hamlet is still wearing mourning attireStop moppingGet along with the kingAnd let thine eye look like a friend on Denmark.Do not forever with thy vailed lids” The queen
Characteristics of Hamlet? 1. sarcastic2. always the smartest in the room3. throws shade, that no one understands4. buried language, double meaning
Who says this what does it mean, “Seems, madam! Nay, it is; I know not seems.’Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother,Nor customary suits of solemn black,That can denote me truly: these indeed seem,For they are actions that a man might play:But I have that within which passeth show;These but the trappings and the suits of woe.” Hamlet; his grief is strong, his dark clothes meant to mourn his father’s death don’t even kind of portray the darkness, his clothes are merely a costume to what he feels inside
How does Claudius feel about Hamlet? He realizes it IS awkward, he tells Hamlet to man up and doesn’t want to talk about it (elephant in the room)
How does Hamlet feel about his mother’s remarriage? Very angry, thinks it’s low
What is shakespeare famous for writing soliloquies
What is a soliloquy? A speech someone gives alone on stage usually revealing their thoughts or inner feelings, emotional shifts are normal
O that this too too solid flesh would melt,Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew! Or that the Everlasting had not fix’dHis canon ‘gainst self-slaughter! O God! O God!How weary, stale, flat, and unprofitableSeem to me all the uses of this world!-Fie on’t! O fie! ’tis an unweeded garden,That grows to seed; things rank and gross in naturePossess it merely. That it should come to this!But two months dead!—nay, not so much, not two:So excellent a king; that was, to this,Hyperion to a satyr; so loving to my mother,That he might not beteem the winds of heavenVisit her face too roughly. Heaven and earth!Must I remember? Why, she would hang on himAs if increase of appetite had grownBy what it fed on: and yet, within a month,—Let me not think on’t,—Frailty, thy name is woman!—A little month; or ere those shoes were oldWith which she followed my poor father’s bodyLike Niobe, all tears;—why she, even she,—O God! a beastWould have mourned longer,—married with mine uncle,My father’s brother; but no more like my fatherThan I to Hercules: within a month;Ere yet the salt of most unrighteous tearsHad left the flushing in her galled eyes,She married:— O, most wicked speed, to postWith such dexterity to incestuous sheets! 1. Hamlet wishes it wasn’t a sin to commit suicide;Wishes he was dead2. emotional shift- sad/ grief-stricken/ pain4. emotional shift from sad about father’s death to angry about his mother’s remarriage starts after “Fie”6. blames mother for getting married so quickly7. thinks that the marriage is evil8. feels like he can’t talk about it to anyone else9. starts thinking about mother’s remarriage and gets mad
How does Horatio know Hamlet? College
How does Laeretes feel about Ophelia and Hamlet? 1. He thinks hamlet might love her2. Might even be pure and innocent3. He is important she is not, he may not choose his own spouse4. He may love you but he can’t marry you5. You could get your heart broken6. Don’t lose your chastity because if you do if you’re not, it’s either nun/prostitution7. Laeretes loves his sister that’s why he says this
Who is Horatio? Hamlet’s friend
Who is Marcellus? guard
What does the ghost look like? The dead king
What does Laertes want to do? He asks the king to go back to college
Who said this and what does it entail? “Thrift, thrift, Horatio! The funeral bak’d meatsDid coldly furnish forth the marriage tables.” Hamlet; implying his mother got married very quickly, sarcasm
Who said this and what does it entail? “Give thy thoughts no tongue,Nor any unproportioned thought his act.Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar.Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel;But do not dull thy palm with entertainmentOf each new-hatch’d, unfledged comrade. BewareOf entrance to a quarrel, but being in,Bear’t that the opposed may beware of thee.Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice;Take each man’s censure, but reserve thy judgment.Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,But not express’d in fancy; rich, not gaudy;For the apparel oft proclaims the man,And they in France of the best rank and stationAre of a most select and generous chief in that.” Polonius said this to Laertes before he leaves.1. MODERATION IN ALL THINGS2. Don’t borrow money, because you need to be dependent on yourself 3. Polonius usually talks in long paragraphs, good advice but rambling4. Don’t give away money because you lose the friend and the money5. Be true to yourself because you won’t be false to anyone else.
What does Polonius say about Ophelia’s relationship with Hamlet? 1. He only cares about himself2. He thinks Hamlet could never have feelings for a commoner like Ophelia3. He’s a bad guy and father4. Tells her to cease all contact with him
What does Horatio think about the ghost? He is not so sure that it is his father, thinks it could be a demon
What’s Marcellus’s famous quote? Something is rotten in the state of Denmark
What is the morality of the play? Catholosicm
What is it meant when the ghost says, “Revenge his foul and most unnatural murder.” What is the important word and what does it mean? Unnatural1. The ghost calls his death UNNATURAL2. Meaning against3. His death was AGAINST nature4. Violation of the natural order5. This is important because in Catholicism they believe in Divine Right, meaning the kings are ordained by God6. This is against God’s plan, and this is not the plan that God had for Denmark
What is the Ghost asking Prince Hamlet to do? 1. Asking Hamlet to fix God’s plan by avenging his death2. This elevates the play to something that God is now interested in
What are the ghost’s instructions to Hamlet? 1. Get revenge on Claudius2. Leave your mother to heaven’s judgement, because the guilt will haunt her
What was the ghost’s story He was sleeping and his uncle came in and put poison in his drink; he didn’t get to confess his sins so that’s why he’s in purgatory
Why is Hamlet pretending to be crazy? He wants to investigate the nature of his father’s death without Claudius suspecting that he knows the truth; it’s easier than acting like he is not angryFaking madness, the madness is a disguise
What is antic disposition? Crazy, outward personality
Who said this and what does it entail? “The time is out of joint: O cursed spite,That ever I was born to set it right!” Hamlet; means time is out of joint, the natural order is messed up and cannot be restored until Hamlet takes action, nothing important can happen until it is fixed
If the ghosts IS a demon, what is Hamlet doing if he kills Claudius? Hamlet is doing Satan’s work, messing up the natural order and damned to hell

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