FuFu English Lit Terms Othello

Rhymed Couplets Two successive lines of verse of which the final words rhyme with another.
Chiasmus A statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed (“Susan walked in, and out rushed Mary.”)
Conditional Clauses a clause where the action proposed in the main clause is dependent on the fulfillment of the subordinate clause. “If you are good, you can go to the party; You can’t go unless you have a ticket.”
Ellipsis Indicated by a series of three periods surrounded by brackets […] indicates that some material has been omitted from a given text.
Imperatives A direct command. Telling someone to do something.
Irony A contrast between expectation and reality.
Syntax Sentence structure
Allusion A reference to another work of literature, person, or event
Onomatopoeia A word that imitates the sound it represents. “Snap Crackle Pop”
Hyperbole An extreme exaggeration
Metonymy A figure of speech that uses the name of an object, person, or idea to represent something with which it is associated, such as using “the crown” to refer to a monarch
Parallelism A set of similarly structured words, phrases, or clauses that appears in a sentence or paragraph
Apostrophe A figure of speech in which someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it were alive and present and could reply.
Synechdoche A figure of speech in which a part signifies the whole, such as “50 masts” representing 50 ships or “100 head of steer had to be moved from the grazing land”
Anaphora A rhetorical figure of repetition in which the same word or phrase is repeated in (and usually at the beginning of) successive lines, clauses, or sentences.
Euphemism A polite or vague word or phrase used to replace another word or phrase that is thought of as too direct or rude.
Soliloquy A dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character talks to himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a listener.
Diction Choice of words
Personification A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
Rhetorical Question A question asked merely for effect with no answer expected.
Analogy A comparison of two different things that are similar in some way
Pathos A quality that evokes pity or sadness
Colloquialism a word or phrase in everyday use in conversation and informal writing but is inappropriate for formal situations. Example: “He’s out of his head if he thinks I’m gonna go for such a stupid idea.
Foreshadowing An author’s use of hints or clues to suggest events that will occur later in the story
Synaesthesia The description of one kind of sensation in terms of another. “He is wearing a loud shirt.”
Metaphor figure of speech comparing two different things
Paradoxical a statement, proposition, or situation that seems to be absurd or contradictory, but in fact is or may be true
Begging the question arguing in a circle”The belief in God is universal. After all, everyone believes in God.”
Bandwagon Appeal A claim that a listener should accept an argument because of how many other people have already accepted it.
Argumentum ad hominem Discrediting an argument by attacking the person who makes it rather than the argument itself
post hoc ergo propter hoc (“After this, therefore because of this”) It attempts to prove that because a second event followed a first event, the second event was the results of the first
glittering generalities Emotional or catchy words used to create a positive feeling. Example: “…I believe in freedom…”
Oxymoron A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase.
Pun a joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word or the fact that there are words that sound alike but have different meanings.
Simile A comparison using like or as
Alliteration Repetition of sounds at the beginning of words
Antithesis A direct opposite. A contrast.
adage A proverb, wise saying
aphorism A brief statement, usually one sentence long, that expresses a general principle or truth about life.
tautology a repetition, a redundancy, a circular argument “let’s all work together, everyone, as a team”
ploce repeating a word within a line
kairos “The opportune moment, the significant moment, a critical juncture in time/space/action”
false dichotomy A fallacy of either/or reasoning. Offering two choice where there are, in fact other options (Its me or the dog!)
aposiopesis A literary device in which a character stops speaking in the middle of a sentence.
epimone Frequent repetition of a phrase or question; dwelling on a point.