Fall Study Guide Part I Hamlet & Song of Solomon

Know famous quotes and who says them for Hamlet Likely by: Claudius, Hamlet, Horatio, Polonius, Gertrude, Ophelia, Laertes
Know famous quotes and who says them for Song of Solomon Likely by: Milkman, Macon, Pilate, Ruth, Guitar, Magdalene called Lena, Hagar, Ruth (and possibly First Corinthians)
Know the motifs in Hamlet Misogyny, Incest, Ears & Hearing, Death, Disease in Politics, Appearance vs. Reality, Garden, Revenge, Flowers
Know the motifs in Song of Solomon Abandonment, Singing/Song, Colors, Flight, Names, The Bible, Flowers,
Know themes in Hamlet Theme Ideas: The impossibility of certainty, The complexity of action, The nation as a diseased body, Revenge, Appearance vs. Reality, Family Duty, Power, Thought and Action, Theater and Life
Know themes in Song of Solomon Theme Ideas: Flight as a means of escape, The alienating effects of racism,
Plot points in Hamlet (very basic) – King Hamlet murdered- King Hamlet’s Ghost is seen- Hamlet sees his father’s ghost, follows it- King Hamlet’s Ghost tells Hamlet that he was murdered by Claudius and must be avenged – Hamlet pretends to be crazy, has actors perform a play similar to the murder of King Hamlet to see if Claudius is guilty- Hamlet kills Polonius- Ophelia dies- Claudius gets Laertes to challenge Hamlet in a duel, plans to kill Hamlet- Laertes, Gertrude, Claudius and Hamlet all die in the duel- Fortinbras shows up and takes back Norway
Plot points in Song of Solomon (very basic and as chronological as possible) – Robert Smith jumps off of the roof of Mercy – Milkman born- Milkman given his nickname by Freddie after Ruth was caught breastfeeding him- Milkman meets Pilate, Reba and Hagar(a bunch of stuff happens)- Milkman hits his father, learns why he hates Ruth- Milkman hears Ruth’s version of the story (a bunch of stuff happens)- Guitar tells Milkman about the Seven Days- Guitar and Milkman steal the green sack from Pilate’s house and get arrested- Pilate/Macon bail them out – Milkman goes to Virginia in search for the gold, ends up meeting Circe and learning more about his family(a bunch of stuff happens)- Guitar shoots and kills Pilate on accident- Milkman leaps at Guitar and novel ends
Hero’s Path and how it applies to Hamlet/Song of Solomon 1. THE ORDINARY WORLD. The hero, uneasy, uncomfortable or unaware, is introduced sympathetically so the audience can identify with the situation or dilemma. The hero is shown against a background of environment, heredity, and personal history. Some kind of polarity in the hero’s life is pulling in different directions and causing stress.2. THE CALL TO ADVENTURE. Something shakes up the situation, either from external pressures or from something rising up from deep within, so the hero must face the beginnings of change. 3. REFUSAL OF THE CALL. The hero feels the fear of the unknown and tries to turn away from the adventure, however briefly. Alternately, another character may express the uncertainty and danger ahead.4. MEETING WITH THE MENTOR. The hero comes across a seasoned traveler of the worlds who gives him or her training, equipment, or advice that will help on the journey. Or the hero reaches within to a source of courage and wisdom.5. CROSSING THE THRESHOLD. At the end of Act One, the hero commits to leaving the Ordinary World and entering a new region or condition with unfamiliar rules and values. 6. TESTS, ALLIES AND ENEMIES. The hero is tested and sorts out allegiances in the Special World.7. APPROACH. The hero and newfound allies prepare for the major challenge in the Special world.8. THE ORDEAL. Near the middle of the story, the hero enters a central space in the Special World and confronts death or faces his or her greatest fear. Out of the moment of death comes a new life. 9. THE REWARD. The hero takes possession of the treasure won by facing death. There may be celebration, but there is also danger of losing the treasure again.10. THE ROAD BACK. About three-fourths of the way through the story, the hero is driven to complete the adventure, leaving the Special World to be sure the treasure is brought home. Often a chase scene signals the urgency and danger of the mission.11. THE RESURRECTION. At the climax, the hero is severely tested once more on the threshold of home. He or she is purified by a last sacrifice, another moment of death and rebirth, but on a higher and more complete level. By the hero’s action, the polarities that were in conflict at the beginning are finally resolved.12. RETURN WITH THE ELIXIR. The hero returns home or continues the journey, bearing some element of the treasure that has the power to transform the world as the hero has been transformed.
Simile explicit comparison between two things of unlike natureex: The night is bleeding like a cut – Bono
Personification investing abstractions for inanimate objects with human qualities or abilitiesex: The night comes crawling in on all fours. – David Lowery
Metaphor implied comparison between two things of unlike natureex: The symbol of all our aspirations, one of the student leaders called her: the fruit of our struggle. – John Simpson, “Tianamen Square”
Alliteration repetition of initial or medial consonants in two or more adjacent wordsex: Already American vessels have been searched, seized, and sunk. – John F. Kennedy
Tragic Flaw -Hegel’s view of the tragic flaw is the moral one-sidedness that provides the undoing-Nietzsche’s view is that the tragic hero provides an example to us as he prepares himself for higher existence through his own destruction-supreme pride – seems arrogant and conceited – puts hero above others equal to gods
Irony use of a word in such a way as to convey a meaning opposite to the literal meaning of the wordex: This plan means that one generation pays for another. Now that’s just dandy. – Huey P. Long
Exposition used to introduce background information about events, settings, characters etc. to the audience or readersex: “A long time ago in a galaxy far away, far away…”
Synecdoche figure of speech in which a part stands for the whole ex: The British Crown has been plagued by scandal.
Metonymy substitution of some attributive or suggestive word for what is actually meantex: I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat*. – Sir Winston Churchillex: In Europe, we gave the cold shoulder to De Gaulle, and now he gives the warm hand to Mao Tse-tung.
Oxymoron the yoking of two terms which are ordinarily contradictoryex: The unheard sounds came through, each melodic line existed of itself …
Allusion a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significanceex: “This place is like a Garden of Eden.”
Paradox an apparently contradictory statement that nevertheless contains a measure of truthex: Art is a form of lying in order to tell the truth. – Pablo Picasso
Circumspect Heedful of circumstances and potential consequences; prudent. cautious, prudent, or discreet
Malicious characterized by malice; intending or intended to do harm.
Figurative Language using figures of speech to be more effective, persuasive and impactfulex: metaphors, similes, allusions, alliterations, imageries, or onomatopoeias, etc
Hyperbole the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effectex: It rained for four years, eleven months, and two days. – Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Assonance the repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants, in the stressed syllables of adjacent wordsex: Whales in the wake like capes and AlpsQuaked the sick sea and snouted deep. – Dylan Thomas
Repetition repeats the same words or phrases a few times to make an idea clearerex: Because I do not hope to turn again Because I do not hope Because I do not hope to turn…
Pathetic Fallacy Attributes human qualities and emotions to inanimate objects of nature. Pathetic fallacy is a kind of personification that gives human emotions to inanimate objects of nature for example referring to weather features reflecting a mood.ex: “I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o’er vales and hills,”
Understatement employed by writers or speakers to intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really isex: “I have to have this operation. It isn’t very serious. I have this tiny little tumor on the brain.”
Adroit someone who is very skillful at doing somethingex: An Olympic Gold medalist in skiing is an example of someone who is adroit at skiing.
Audacious Fearlessly, often recklessly daring; bold
Contemplative involving, allowing, or causing deep thoughtdevoted to religious thought and prayer
Poignancy keenly distressing to the feelings, affecting or moving the emotionsex: The photograph was a poignant reminder of her childhood
Colloquial Speech conversational, informal refer to types of speech or to usages not on a formal level
Connotative Diction refers to a meaning that is implied by a word apart from the thing which it describes explicitlyex: “Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day”
Metaphorical Allusions A metaphor referring to a particular person, place, or thingex: referring to someone as “a Hercules.”
Euphemistic refers to polite, indirect expressions which replace words and phrases considered harsh and impolite or which suggest something unpleasantex: It may be in the form of abbreviations e.g. B.O. (body odor), W.C. (toilet) etc.
Many of the themes and motifs in Hamlet are drawn from … Hamlet’s desire for revenge and the way he goes about doing it and how his actions affect those around him.
The power of evil in Hamlet is demonstrated by … Claudius and his thoughts and actions. His willingness to murder his own brother for the crown was evil enough, but lying and killing in order to maintain his status is another form of evil.
The event that marks the turning point in the action of the play is … the play that Hamlet has the actors perform for Claudius to prove if he is guilty or not.
A character who acts as a foil to Hamlet is … Prince Fortinbras or Laertes.
Hamlet is especially troubled by moral corruption in … deciding whether or not he is going to go through with his plans to avenge his father’s murder.