English Unit Test: Romeo and Juliet

Prose The common language that does not necessarily follow a meter or rhyme scheme. Shakespeare often uses it for the speech of servants/low class.
Iambic pentameter The metered language in which a line consists of five metric feet, each made of an unstressed followed by a stressed syllable (a total of 10 syllables).Ex: “Two households, both alike in dignity…”
Pentameter A line that consists of 5 literary meters (five PAIRS of syllables).
Iamb A pair of syllables, the first unstressed followed by a stressed.
Blank verse Verse that is written in iambic pentameter and does not rhyme. The majority of the play is written in blank verse.
Sonnet A poem that usually has 14 lines, is made of three quatrains, ends in a couplet (ABAB CDCD, EFEF, GG), and is written in iambic pentameter (10 syllables).
Quatrains A group of 4 lines that rhyme with every-other line (ABAB).
Couplets A pair of lines that rhyme with each other (GG). When a character exits a scene Shakespeare like to close his/her lines with this pair.
Shakespear’s rhyme scheme (Optional) A rhyming sequence consisting of three quatrains that ends in a couplet (ABAB CDCD, EFEF, GG).
Chiasmus An inverting word order that follows an ABBA word sequence. Ex: “Ask not what your COUNTRY can do for YOU, but what YOU can do for your COUNTRY.” (The “A”= “Country”) (The “B” = “You”)
Antithesis Pairing opposites or contrasting ideas, often in parallel structure.Ex: Life and death; dignity and mutiny; passion and practicality; love and hate; maturity and immaturity.
Puns Jokes based on possible multiple meanings of a word. Usually Shakespeare will go with a literal/nonliteral relationship.Ex: “Not I, believe me. You have dancing shoes with nimble SOLES. I have a SOUL of lead. So stakes me to the ground I cannot move.”Ex: “Give me a torch. I am not for this ambling. Being but HEAVY I will bear the LIGHT.”
Apostrophe The addressing of an imaginary or absent character (can be an object).Ex: “Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo.”
Malapropism The use of an incorrect word (usually with the same sound) instead of the correct one. It is often used to poke fun at uneducated characters.
Epithet A descriptive phrase associated with a character.Ex: In the prologue Romeo and Juliet are described as “star-crossed lovers.”
Foil A character who has qualities that contrast with another’s for emphasis. Ex: Benvolio is very practical and peaceful. Mercutio is passionate and violent. Yet, they are best friends.
Prologue An introduction that provides background information without actually entering the story plot.
Chorus A group of actors that address the audience to comment on the actions of the play.
Monologue A speech presented by a single character to give a peek into their thoughts and feelings.
Soliloquy When a character speaks to himself/herself rather than another character. These speeches often provide insight into the thoughts and feelings of a character.
Aside A remark that is intended to be heard by the audience, but not by other characters
Repartee A quick, witty exchange between two characters. Originally a fencing term, meaning answering attacks with quick jab responses.
Extended metaphor When an author uses an analogy at length to emphasize a point.
Unrequited love Love that is unwanted and not returned.
Comic relief A humorous element that relieves dramatic tension. Shakespeare usually crude/vulgar topics for this purpose. In Romeo and Juliet, after the comical relief Mercutio dies, so does the humor.