English II Quarter 3 Exam: Sonnets and Macbeth

sonnet a 14-line poem in iambic pentameter with a carefully patterned rhyme scheme
Italian sonnet another name for a Petrarchan sonnet
Petrarchan sonnet sonnet named after Francesco Petrarch, the Italian poet, which was introduced into English poetry in the early 16th century
14 Petrarchan sonnets are __ lines.
octave; sestet Petrarchan sonnets contain 14 lines which break into an ______ and a ______
abbaabba, abbacddc, and abababab List rhyming patterns for an octave in a Petrarchan sonnet:
cdecde or cdcdcd List rhyming patterns for an sestet in a Petrarchan sonnet:
octave; beginning of the sestet; sestet Petrarchan sonnets develop a subject in the __________, then shifts at the _____________, which means the ____ releases tension build up earlier.
English sonnet Another name for a Shakespearean sonnet
Shakespearean sonnet a sonnet that sonsists of 3 quatrains and a couplet that rhymes abab cdcd gg
true True of False; The Shakespearean sonnet has a wider range of possibilites
introduces an idea; complicates it; complicates it again; resolves it In a Shakespearean sonnet, one pattern __________ in the first quatrain, _____ in the second, ________ again in the third, and _____ in the final couplet
Il Canzoniere The song book compiled by Petrarch in 1336
False T/F: Petrarch has talked to Laura.
366 How many poems were in The Song Book?
263 while she was alive; 103 after she died Out of Petrarch’s 366 poems in Il Cansoniere, how many were about Laura?
1348 on Good Friday When did Laura die?
Laura died the same day Petrarch met her, but 21 years later What is so significant about Laura’s death date?
April 6th, 1327, Good Friday at an Easter Mass When and where did Petrarch meet Laura?
Laura de Noves Who is Laura thought to be historically?
Father of Humanism Petrarch is recognized as the “___________________”
bubonic plague What did Laura and all of Petrarch’s family die from?
poet laureate In 1340, Petrarch was asked to be crowned as _________ by Rome and Paris.
Rome For being crowned poet laureate, which offer did he choose? (Paris or Rome)
Poet lauret a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for state occasions and other government events
Petrarch’s Who’s writing inspired Shakespeare?
Humanism philosophy stressed the dignity of humanity and shifted intellectual emphasis off of theology and logic to specifically human studies
Latin; greek Humanists of the Renaissance rediscovered the ______ and _________ classics
classical literature; Latin; classical literature Although he is known in the present age primarily for his poetry, particularly his Italian sonnets to Laura, during his own time, Petrarch was known for his work in discovering and disseminating _______________ as well as ______ and his imitations of ___________________, such as his letters.
Title Before reading the poem, examine this and predict what the poem will be about
Paraphrase Using your own words to tell what the poem says NOT what it means (be literal not figurative)
Connotation Going back and finding figurative language
Attitude finding the tone of the author and speaker
Shift A break when the speaker ends one manner of speech, changes point of view, or pauses to consider something other than the subject. This can be a change in attitude or change in subject matter.
Title Examine this again and determine whether your initial prediction was right or wrong.
Theme Using one sentence to write the main idea of the poem; determining what the author is saying and wants us to know
TitleParaphraseConnotationAttitudeShiftTitleTheme What does TPCASTT stand for?
land The primary source of status was _____ not money
rank; status ____ and ___ mattered a great deal
monarchs The power of ___________ increased during the Renaissance.
bureaucracies Kings helped consolidate their power by creating _______________ to rule their realm.
middleclass The men chosen for the bureaucracies were _____
talents Bureaucracies created a new type of person whose status resulted from his _________, not his name.
Europe in 1348 When and where was the black plague?
300 years For how long did the black plague last?
fleas on rats What caused the black plague?
fire During the black plague, ___ was a constant hazard because many buildings were build with wood.
back to the sources What does ad fontes mean?
rhetoric using spoken language to teach, give pleasure, and persuade
vernacular The Renaissance saw a new emphasis on the _______ languages.
Italian, French, Spanish, Germany, Dutch, and English What are the vernacular languages?
2 Out of the 38 plays Shakespeare wrote, only ___ has original plots.
38 How many plays did Shakespeare write?
to give the story a more complex meaning Why did Shakespeare copy the past?
Laura A carefree, beautiful, young woman whose eyes are turned dull from age. The girl felt bad for narrator, but it was false pity. despite this. The narrator holds this girl above all else even at her old age.
Laura narrator compares Laura to an angel
Laura includes an allusion to cupid from Greek mythology
Laura imagery including golden hair, radiant west, and shine
Laura personifies “Pity”
Love doesn’t die like age. What is the theme of Laura?
The white doe The narrator sees a white doe in the forest during the winter. The doe is confident, so the narrator followed her. The narrator soon realizes there is a collar around the neck that says do not touch, but the doe wants to be free. Once the narrator is blinded by sun, he falls down, and the doe is gone
The White Doe contains imagery including pure white doe, emerald glade, and antlers of gold
The White Doe contains alliteration: Her sight was so suavely merciless
The White Doe compares the narrator to a miser because the doe is like treasure to him
The White Doe compares collar to wedding ring
The White Doe allusion to Julius Ceaser
The White Doe ALLEGORY (comparison throughout the whole literary piece) Laura to a doe
You can’t have everything you want Theme of The White Doe
Spring The wind blow causing plants to move around. Two birds come together and all the colors of spring. The fields are glad and sky is fair; even the gods are happy/beautiful. Love is in the air and every thing on earth. Despite all this, the narrator is sad. For the girl who held the key to his heart took it to heaven. The outside is lively and ladies are happy, but the beast prowl on sand. (meaning the ladies he sees is not good enough for him bc Laura who died stole the key to his heart and died with it, so he never got it back.
Spring Allusion to Greek mythology: Zephyr, Procne and Philomel
Spring contains imagery of tender colors
Spring contains allusion to roman mythology (Jove and Venus)
Spring Metaphor comparing ladies to beasts
Spring contains imagery: deserts burn, ungreening sand
Spring The beginning of the last stanza goes back to the first octave by saying it’s beautiful, but the end of the last stanza states that this spring is not good enough for him because Laura stole the key to his heart and died with it and he can never get it back
With love comes dispair What is the theme of Spring?
alliteration the repetition of initial consonant sounds
allusion a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literaty work, or work of art
apostrophe figure of speech in which a speaker directly addresses an absent person or personified quality, object, or idea; adds emotional intensity
assonance repetition of vowel sounds
consonance repetition of final consonant sounds
couplet pair of rhyming lines written in the same meterex: “To live with her, and live with thee in unreproved pleasures free.”
hyperbole deliberate exaggeration or overstatement ex: “two socks as soft as rabbits. I slipped my feet into them as though into two cases knitted with threads of twilight”
imagery descriptive language used in literature to re-create sensory experiences ex: “silence. not a leaf stirs. no sign of light; only pathetic sobs and scraping of slippers and sighing and tears in the pauses.”
metaphor figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as thought it were something else ex: “death, that longs sleep” or “insects were living jewels”
meter the rhythmical pattern of a poem determined by the stresses, or beats, in each line
oxymoron figure of speech that fuses two contradictory or opposing ideasex” “freezing fire” “happy grief”
personification figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given a human characteristicex: “The August river claps its hands”
rhyme repetition of sounds at the end of words
end rhyme rhyme at the end of line of poetry
internal rhyme rhyme that falls within a line
exact rhyme rhymes with identical sounds (love and glove)
slant rhyme rhyme which sounds are similar but not identical (prove and glove)
rhyme scheme the pattern of rhyming in a poem or stanzaex: “A lamb her thrist was slaking once at a mountain rill. A hungry wolf was taking his hunt for sheep to kill.”
simile figure of speech that compares two dissimilar things by using a key word such as like or asex: “But swift Achilleus kept unremittingly after Hektor, chasing him, as a dog in the mountains…”
stanza group of lines in a poem considered as a unitfunction like a paragraph in prosestates and develops a main idea
symbol anything that stands for or represents something elseex: a flag symbolizes a country
iambic pentameter each line has 10 syllables; five foot lines of a weak stress followed by a strong stress
The Chronicles of England, Scotland and England (focused on early Scottish history and the reign of King Macbeth) Where did Shakespeare get his background for Macbeth from?
True T/F Many of the story is embellished to please King James I and King Christian IV, so some features are not real.
Norwegians In the story Macbeth, the defeat of Macdonwald was by ___________ instead of Danish.
Banquo and three witches List characters that occur in the story, but not in history.
King Duncan I, King Macbeth, and Malcolm III List characters that occur in the story and history
King James I; King Christian IV Shakespeare wrote plays to please ________ of Scotland and England and ___________ of Denmark
witchcraft King James I was interested in ________.
God, Angels, Spheres (stars and planets), Man, Animals, Plants, Elements What is the Elizabethan World View?
Kings/Queens, Lords/Nobility, Gentry (landowners)/Artisans (skilled workers), Merchants, Serfs (peasants) What is the Elizabethan World View on man?
internal forces (human weakness) or external forces (fortune/bad luck) In the Elizabethan world view, how are orders disrupted?
an authority figure In the Elizabethan world view, who restores the order?
exposition, inciting force, rising action, climax, falling action, catastrophe What’s the tragic structure?
Middle Ages; Scotland Macbeth takes place during the ____________ in ______.
Macbeth b/w his ambition and sense of right and wrongmurderous evil vs. the best interests of the nation What are the major conflicts (2) in Macbeth?
Corruption of AmbitionSimilarity of Cruelty and MasculinityKingship and Tyranny difference What are the themes (3) of Macbeth?
Heaven vs. HellClothingFalse AppearancesDarknessUnnatural Events What are the motifs (5) in Macbeth?
King James executing women for being witches and the bloody history of Scotland Shakespeare may have been influenced to write a Scottish play on what event?
Some words are no longer used, meanings of the words have changed, and the order of words in sentances are different What are the 3 reasons why some words in Shakespeare’s plays may be hard to understand?
Shakespeare changed the normal order of words in a sentance Why may the structure of Macbeth be challenging to read?
puns and metaphors What 2 types of word play does Shakespeare use?
metaphors Which type of word play is more predominant in Macbeth?
vague The language used in Macbeth is often deliberately ____.
Stratford, England William Shakespeare was born in the town of ___.
Kings New School which was an excellent English grammar school What type of School did Shakespeare attend?
Latin, grammar, and literature What did the students at Shakespeare’s school study?
1582; Anne Hathaway; Susana; Judith; Hamnet In November of ____, he married ______ and his children were ____, ___, and ___.
London; actor; playwright By 1592, Shakespeare had moved to ______ to becomes a ________ and a ________.
narrative poems because theaters were closed due to the plague What type of writing of Shakespeare’s was first published? Why?
Lord Chamberlain’s Men; King’s Men The acting company organized by Richard Burbage in which Shakespeare was shareholder was called the _________ but later renamed ________.
Globe In 1599, Burbage’s Company built the ____ Theater, where most of Shakespeare’s plays were then performed.
the Globe Theater Where were most of Shakespeare’s plays performed?
1612; 1616 Shakespeare prospered, retired in ___, and died in _____.
1623; Mr. William Shakespeare’s comedies, histories, and tragedies Shakespeare’s plays were published in ______ by 2 fellow members of his company and titled _____________.
There is no written documentations proving he wrote them Why do some people believe Shakespeare did not write his plays?
courts/university halls or the houses of great lords and civic officials In what locations might plays be performed at this time period?
outdoor and public playhouses What were the 2 types of theaters?
1. women were played by young boys2. the stage was not full of scenery What is the difference between how plays were staged then vs. now?
inciting force an action early in the play which makes the hero decide on his course of action
climax the turning point which is the moment after the hero’s doom becomes clearly inevitable
catastrophe the disintegration of the hero as a consequence of his actions (usually death)
paradox (lit device) seems contradictory, but is true
pathetic fallacy (lit device) attribute human emotion to inanimate objects
apostrophe (lit device) addressing someone not present
dramatic irony (lit device) irony in which the audience knows something the characters do not
soliloquy (lit device) when a character on stage talks without any other character
aside a remark or passage by a character in a play that is intended to be heard by the audience but unheard by the other characters in the play.
the hero’s inner struggle The conflict of a tragic play is __________.
good Elizabethans believed that the basic order in the world was ____.
moral evil The __________ in the play disturbs the order of the world.
the abnormal mindthe supernaturalchance Parts of a Tragic Story
External conflict conflict between 2 persons or groups by another 2 persons or groups
exceptional beingsflaw in characteraudience must desire his defeat Characteristics of a Tragic Hero:
to build up tension (they speak in rhyme which means they’re casting a spell) What is the point of the first scene literally and in reference to the whole play?
his valiant cousin What does Duncan call Macbeth when he hears Macbeth has defeated Macdonwald?
The former Thane of Cawdor Who is sentenced to death?
1. Thane of Glamis2. Thane of Cawdor3. King What do the witches predict in I.iii for Macbeth?
1. lesser but greater than MB2. not happy, but happier than MB3. his kids will be king What do the witches predict in I.iii for Banquo?
he’s the Thane of Cawdor What news does Ross bring Macbeth?
they tell the truth and don’t be tricked Banquo, like MB, is surprised that the witches have predicted MB’s new title. He is, however, leery. What does he say about the motives of the “instruments of darkness”?
he died an honorable death Malcolm describes Cawdor’s last moments before execution. What is Duncan’s reply?
to be king which calls for him to kill Duncan Macbeth says, “Stars, hide your fires, Let not light see my black and deep desires.” What are MB’s desires?
MB is too nice to kill Duncan; Lady MB will arrange the murder After Lady MB reads the letter, what does she tell us is her opinion of Macbeth, and how does she plan to help him?
She prays to take her femininity away and give her courage to kill Duncan What is Lady MB’s “prayer” to the spirits after she learns Duncan is coming?
to act nonchalant and not to over think it What advice does Lady MB give MB when he arrives home?
what if the murder back fires and he might die next What are MB’s arguments to himself against killing Duncan?
she degrades him and tells him he’s not a real man if he doesn’t murder What arguments does Lady MB use to convince MB to commit the murder?
to get the guards intoxicated, ring a bell at midnight to signal MB to kill Duncan and leave the weapons he used next to the guards to frame them What is Lady MB’s plan?
he did not think about the Weird Sisters so Banquo won’t find hin suspicious What is MB’s lie to Banquo about the witches’ predictions?
ring a bell at midnight What is the signal Lady MB is to give MB to let him know that she has taken care of the guards (grooms)?
Duncan reminded her too much of her father What excuse does Lady Mb give for not killing Duncan herself?
to not over think it After MB kills Duncan, he goes to Lady MB and is concerned about not being able to say Amen. What is her advice to him?
hide his emotions and act nonchalant Then, MB is worried about hearing a voice saying, “Macbeth does murder sleep.” What does Lady MB then tell him to do?
he does not want to see Duncan’s dead body Why won’t MB take the daggers back to the scene of the crime?
Macduff and Lennox Who was knocking?
sleep, a red face, and urine What 3 things does drinking provoke?
Lennox has nightmares and unnatural events occur How does Lennox describe the night, and what is Macbeth’s response?
Duncan’s dead body What did Macduff discover?
Lady MB helped killed Duncan Macduff says, “Oh, gentle lady, ’tis not for you to hear what I can speak, The repetitior in a woman’s ear, Would murder as it fell.” What is ironic about this?
fake: He saw the guards try to kill Duncan. real:He though the guards saw him kill him What excuse or explanation did Macbeth give for killing the guards? What is his reason?
so they don’t look suspicious and are safer Why do Malcolm and Donalbain leave?
it’s against nature to kill one’s father Why does Ross not believe Malcolm and Donalbain were responsible for Duncan’s murder?
Despite the fact he did the work to be king, Fleance will be heir to the throne and BQ has become an enemy Why does Macbeth want Banquo and Fleance dead?
Macbeth plans to be at a banquet while hitmen wait along side the road to kill Banquo and Fleance; only Banquo dies, the plan does not work What is Macbeth’s plan for killing Banquo and Fleance? Does it work?
Over time, Fleance will become a threat Macbeth says, “The worm that’s fled Hath nature that in time will venom breed, No teeth for the present.” What does this mean?
Banquo’s ghost Who (what) did Macbeth see at the banquet table?
LMB claims MB acts crazy often How does Lady Macbeth cover for Macbeth at the banquet? What excuses does she give for his wild talk?
Macduff Who else was missing from the banquet table (besides Banquo)?
Macbeth might as well keep killing because he’s done this much already Macbeth says, “I am in blood Stepped in so far that should i wade no more, Returning were as tedious as go o’er.” What does this mean?
to meet MB again under her demands What does Hecate want the witches to do?
He still could not believe the sons would do that and MB made a mess of Scotland What does Lennox think about Macbeth, Fleance, and Duncan’s sons?
Macbeth Witch 2 says, “By pricking of my thumb, Something wicked this way comes.” Who comes?
demanding What is Macbeth’s attitude towards the witches this time?
1. An armed head- Beware Macduff2. A bloody child- no one born of woman shall harm him3. A crowned child holding trees- trees of Birnam Woods will do to Dunsinane Hill 4. Glass in hand- 8 Kings from the line of BanquoMacbeth seems nonchalant about the first 3 apps., but is worried about Banquo’s line What four things did the witches show Macbeth? What does each show/say? What is Macbeth’s reaction?
an armed head What is the first apparition?
Beware Macduff What does the first apparition say?
a bloody child What is the 2nd apparition?
no man born of woman shall harm him What does the 2nd apparition say?
a crowned child holding trees What is the 3rd apparition?
Macbeth will be save until the trees of Birnam Woods will go to Dunsinane Hill What does the 3rd apparition say?
confident How does Macbeth feel about the first 3 apparitions?
a glass showing 8 kings from the line of Banquo What is the 4th apparition?
uneasy How does Macbeth feel about the 4th apparition?
He cursed himself (he trusts witches) Macbeth says (about the witches), “Infected be the air whereon they ride, And damned all those that trust them!” What is Macbeth, in effect, saying about himself?
in England helping Macduff’s army Where is Macduff?
he thinks MD is plotting against him Why does Macbeth have Macduff’s family and servants killed?
Because there are more liars and swearers than honest men, they could hang them so they won’t be in jeopardy Why does Lady Macduff’s son say liars and swearers are fools?
The devil WAS the brightest angel, but fell. The good angels should now be judged according to the devil’s actions. (Macbeth was once good, but fell) Malcolm says, “Angels are bright still, though the brightest fell. Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace, Yet grace must still look so.” What does this mean?
Scotland is doomed because of MB Macduff says, “Oh Scotland, Scotland!” Why?
MD’s family is dead What news does Ross bring to Macduff?
LMB was sleep-walking and talking of murders. The doctor decides to move on and tells the gentlewoman to watch her so she won’t hurt herself What do the doctor and gentlewoman see Lady Macbeth doing? What do they decide to do about it?
to remove her illness and pluck her memory What does Macbeth want the doctor to do for his wife?
Malcolm plans to hide his men with cut trees to make their army look larger What trick does Malcolm use to hide the number of men in his army?
Although people fight along side MB, they do NOT do it for their love of Scotland/MB, but bc they have to Malcolm says, “And none serve with him but constrained things Whose hearts are absent, too.” What does this mean?
She would die sooner or later What is Macbeth’s reaction to Lady Macbeth’s death?
He will fight to the death if it’s true What is Macbeth’s reaction to the news that Birnam Wood is moving?
Young Siward; MB kills him Who first fights Macbeth? What happens?
He already killed MD’s family, so he doesn’t want to kill him Macbeth says to Macduff, “But get thee back, my soul is too much charged With blood of thine already,” To what is he referring?
when he finds out Macduff was born via C section When does Macbeth know he’s in trouble?
Macduff beheads Macbeth; dies with honor How does Macbeth die?
Malcolm Who will be king of Scotland?
Malcolm Who restored the order Macbeth disrupted?
ambition to be King and kill Duncan What is Macbeth’s flaw in character?
yes Does Macbeth die with honor?
She kills herself How does Lady Macbeth die?
Malcolm pretends like he has certain vices (that he doesn’t have) that would make him a bad king How does Malcolm make sure Macduff is against Macbeth, but for Scotland?
he can’t kill a ghost Why is Macbeth more scared of ghost Banquo than a human?
When Fleance flees from the murderers What is the climax?
no Does Macbeth tell Lady Macbeth about his murder plans?
no Does Lennox trust the rumors that the sons killed their fathers?
yes Did Macduff pass the test Malcolm set on him?
no; He has no friends or love in his life Is Macbeth truly happy?
life is pointless What does Macbeth mean when he says, “Life is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing”?
Siward and his son takes the army to attack first, then Malcolm and Macduff second What is Malcolm and the English army’s plan?
If he doesn’t kill him, his wife and children will haunt him What does Macduff say about killing Macbeth?
1. Names followers Earls (not thanes)2. Exiled friends shall come home What are Malcolm’s first actions as king?
The witches and the battles against Macdonwald What’s the exposition of Macbeth?
predictions from the witches Whats the inciting force?
Duncan dies; Macbeth becomes king Whats the rising action?
Fleance escapes What is the climax?
Apparitions and the battle What is the falling action?
MB dies and LMB kills herself(**restoration of order**) What is the catastrophe?
paradox (lit device) seems contradictory but is actually true
pathetic fallacy (lit device) attribute human emotion to an inanimate object
apostrophe (lit device) addressing someone not present
dramatic irony (lit device) when the audience knows something the character does not know
soliloquy (lit device) an act of speaking one’s thoughts aloud when by oneself or regardless of any hearers
oxymoron (lit device) fuses two opposing idea
aside (lit device) a character’s dialogue is spoken but not heard by the other actors on the stage
pun (lit device) a play on words that produces a humorous effect by using a word that suggests two or more meanings, or by exploiting similar sounding words that have different meanings
foil (lit device) a character who contrasts with another character
Macbeth Who disrupts the Elizabethan order?
She once told MB how easy it is to forget their crimes (she’s nervous about the crimes now) How are the things which LMB said while sleeptalking ironic?
…and I fear thou play’dst most folly for it. (Banquo soliloquy) Banquo admits he has suspicious Macbeth was the murderer of Duncan.
To be thus is nothing, but to be safely thus. Our fears in Banquo stick deep. (Macbeth soliloquy) To be king is nothing, but to be securely stationed in a position of power is much better. Macbeth thinks Banquo will turn him in.
It is concluded. Banquo, thy soul’s flight, if it find heaven, must find it out tonight. (Macbeth soliloquy) Macbeth has successfully arranged Banquo’s death.
Naught’s had, all’s spent, where our desire is got without content. (Lady Macbeth soliloquy) They have their goal but not the happiness they expected to come with it.
Things without all remedy should be without regard; what’s done is done. (Lady Macbeth to Macbeth) She wants him to be happy and move on because there is no way to change what has happened.
We’ve scorched the snake, not killed it. (Macbeth to Lady Macbeth) They cannot stop their violence because the need for power will never end.
Duncan is in his grave. After life’s fitful fever he sleeps well. (Macbeth to Lady Macbeth) Macbeth thinks maybe death is better than being in a position where power and life are always being threatened and you can trust no one.
Things bad begun make themselves strong by ill. (Macbeth to Lady Macbeth) The only way to make this right is by continuing to attack.
Oh treachery! Fly, good Fleance, fly! Fly fly! (Banquo to Fleance) Banquo died and Fleance lived; Banquo knows Macbeth sent the murderers
The worm that’s fled hath nature that in time will venom breed, no teeth for the present. (Macbeth to murderer) He knows Fleance is a threat to the throne.
Thou canst not say that I did it; never shake thy gory locks at me. (Macbeth to Ghost of Banquo) Macbeth claims that his use of the murderers makes him not guilty. He tells the ghost to leave.
Do not muse at me, my most worthy friends, I have a strange infirmity which is nothing to those that know me. (Macbeth to lords) Macbeth adopts Lady Macbeth’s idea that the reason for his strange outbursts is a disease.
I am in blood stepped so far that, should I wade no more, returning were so tedious as go o’er. (Macbeth to Lady Macbeth) He is in too deep. Just as much effort is required to fight than to surrender.
We are but young indeed. (Macbeth to Lady Macbeth) Macbeth tells Lady Macbeth that they are just beginners in crime/sin and must continue.
Some holy angel fly to the court of England and unfold his message ere he come. (Lennox to lord) Macduff has gone to England to get troops for overthrowing Macbeth.
You lack the season of all natures, sleep. (Lady Macbeth to Macbeth) Because of your use of violence you are not able to sleep.
“By the pricking of my thumbs, something wicked this way comes” (Three witches) After the potion is complete the witches are expecting the arrival of Macbeth.
“Beware Macduff; Beware the Thane of Fife” (First apparition to Macbeth)The first apparition confirms Macbeth’s suspicions of Macduff, and makes him want to kill Macduff.
“Be bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh to scorn the pow’r of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth” (Second apparition to Macbeth) The apparition allays the fears Macbeth has because according to the apparition, no man born of woman can harm Macbeth. Macbeth should laugh at the power of man. Macbeth cannot be defeated by a human.
“Be lion-mettled, proud and take no care who chafes, who frets, or where consipers are. Macbeth shall never be vanquished until Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him” (Third apparition to Macbeth) The only way Macbeth can be defeated is if Birnam Wood travels to Dunsinane which is 12 miles. This bolsters Macbeth’s confidence because it seems impossible for the woods to move.
“From this moment the very firstlings of my heart shall be the firstlings of my hand” (Macbeth) He says this in response to hearing that Macduff had fled to England and is angered in his desire to kill Macduff. He is angry at himself for waiting to kill him when he had doubts. He vows that he will act immediately on his impulses instead of thinking.
“I am young; but something you may discern of through me, and wisdom to offer up a weak, poor innocent lamb t’ appease angry god” (Malcolm to Macduff) Malcolm shows his skeptical nature. He thinks that Macduff may betray Malcolm in order to receive a reward from Macbeth.
“Perchance even there where I did find my doubts. Why in that rawness left you wife and child, those precious motives, those strong knots of live, without leave-taking” (Malcolm to Macduff) Malcolm is especially suspicious of Macduff because he left his wife and children unprotected at home when he fled to England.
“… black Macbeth will seem as pure as snow, and the poor state esteem as a lamb, being compared with my confineless harms” (Malcolm to Macduff) Malcolm tells Macduff a series of fictitious vices that Malcolm says make Macbeth seem pure as snow, in comparison to Malcolm.
“But I have none. The king-becoming graces, as justice, verity, temp’rance, stableness, bounty, perseverance, mercy, lowliness, devotion, patience, courage, fortitude, I have no relish of them, but abound in the division of each several crime, acting it many ways” (Malcolm to Macduff) Malcolm claims that he lacks all of the virtues appropriate to being a king. He states that his crimes are abundant and varied.
“… this noble passion child of integrity, hath from my soul wiped the black scruples, reconciled my thoughts to thy good truth and honor” (Malcolm to Macduff) Convinced that Macduff would support the right king, Malcolm tells Macduff that the vices were untrue and tells Macduff that he is truthful and honorable.
“Front to front bring thou this fiend of Scotland and myself. Within my sword’s length set him” (Macduff to Malcolm) After being told by Malcolm to convert his grief to anger, he shows his desire to get revenge on Macbeth. He wants no delay to keep him from face to face combat with Macbeth.
“Out damned spot! Out, I say! One; two. Why then ’tis time to do’t. Hell is murky. Fie, my lord, fie! A soldier, and afeard? What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our pow’r to accompt? Yet who would have thought the old man to have had so much blood in him?” (V. i. 34-9). Speaker: Lady Macbeth Context: While in her trans-conscious state Lady Macbeth desperately tries to wash Duncan’s imaginary blood off of her hands to clear her of guilt about the murder. Significance: This shows the mental deterioration of Lady Macbeth because she begins to feel guilt from the murder of Duncan. She seems deeply disturbed by the murder at this point.
“Foul whisp’rings are abroad. Unnatural deeds do breed unnatural troubles” (V. i. 69-70). Speaker: Doctor Context: The doctor and gentlewoman observe Lady Macbeth while she is sleep-walking and hear her talk about the murder of Duncan and Banquo. Significance: The doctor is saying that rumors of evil deeds are circulating. He is saying that unnatural deeds, such as murdering King Duncan breed problems due to the guilt.
“Or so much as it needs to dew the sovereign flower and drown the weeds” (V. ii. 35-36). Speaker: Lennox Context: The Scottish rebels go to Birnam Wood to join Malcolm and his English army. Significance: Lennox compares Malcolm to a flower that needs to watered by the blood of patriots and to drown out weeds like Macbeth.
“Let every soldier hew him down a bough and bear’t before him. Thereby shall we shadow the numbers of our host and make discovery err in report of us” (V. iv. 6-9). Speaker: Malcolm Context: The Scottish rebels have met in Birnam Wood and begin to plot how they will attack Macbeth at Dunsinane. Significance: By grabbing a branch the soldiers are able to camouflage themselves and make Macbeth’s scouts falsely report the size of Malcolm’s army. It also makes the prophecy about Birnam Wood true, because the forest is moving to Dunsinane and therefore Macbeth can be defeated.
“I have almost forgot the taste of fears. The time has been, my senses would have cooled to hear a night-shriek, and my fell of hair would at a dismal treatise rouse an stir as life were in’t. I have supped full with horrors. Direness, familiar to my slaughterhouse thoughts, cannot once start me” (V. v. 10-16). Speaker: Macbeth Context: Confident that he cannot be defeated, Macbeth mocks the enemy. He is within the castle at Dunsinane. Significance: Macbeth reminisces on a time when a scream in the night would have frozen Macbeth in fear. Ever since he has fed on horror and his slaughters have left him fearless, he no longer experiences fear.
“She would have died hereafter; there would have been a time for such a word” (V. v. 19-20). Speaker: Macbeth Context: M says this in response to being informed by Seyton that Lady Macbeth had died. Significance: He wishes that she would have died later so that he would time to mourn her. Macbeth seems unaffected by her death and more annoyed by the timing.
“Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow creeps in this petty pace from day to day to the last syllable of recorded time; and all our yesterdays have lighted fools the way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle! Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player, that struts and frets his hour upon the stage and then is heard no more. It is a tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying nothing” (V. v. 21-30). Speaker: Macbeth Context: M says this soliloquy after hearing that his wife is dead. Significance: In the soliloquy, Macbeth expresses his despair about his own meaningless life, the past merely demonstrates death’s power and he wishes his life could be snuffed out like a candle.
“Despair thy charm! And let the angel whom though still hast served tell thee, Macduff was from his mother’s womb untimely ripped” (V. viii. 17-20). Speaker: Macduff Context: Macduff and Macbeth finally face each other on the battlefield and Macbeth is still confident that he cannot be defeated. Macbeth repeats that he cannot be defeated by anyone born of woman. Significance: Macduff reveals that he was born of Caesarian section and not natural birth. This is the loophole in the prophecy, because it made Macbeth arrogant.
“Accursed be that tongue that tells me so, for it hath cowed my better part of man! And be these juggling fiends no more believed, that palter with us in a double sense, that keep the word of promise to our ear and break it to our hope!” (V. viii. 21-6). Speaker: Macbeth Context: M says this after hearing that Macduff was born from Caesarian section. Significance: He realizes his ultimate doom at the hands of Macduff and curses the witches who tricked Macbeth with words that have double meanings.

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