ENGLISH: Grade 10 – Macbeth (ACT 4)

“Double, double toil and trouble; / Fire burn, and cauldron bubble.” – Sc. 1- Witches chanting- The Witches give an otherworldly & supernatural feel/tone- Theme of supernatural
“By the pricking of my thumbs, something wicked this way comes.” – Sc. 1- Second Witch to other Witches- Shows that the Witches are expecting Macbeth & they have 6th sense- Theme of supernatural
“I conjure you, by that which you profess, Howe’er you com to know it, answer me: Though you untie the winds and let them fight Against the churches; though the yesty waves Confound and swallow navigation up; Though bladed corn be lodged and tress blown down; Though palaces and pyramids do slope Their heads to their foundations; though the treasure Of nature’s germens tumble all together, Even till destruction sicken; answer me To what I ask you.” – Sc. 1 – Macbeth to Witches- Macbeth is frightened, anxious, commanding & realizes the Witches power & unnaturalness – Macbeth states that he doesn’t know how they know the things they do, but he insist that they answer his questions- Macbeth also says that he doesn’t care if they destroy everything around, even Scotland, as long as he tells them what he wants to know- Macbeth is very self centered & only cares about himself- Theme of Tyranny
“Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! Beware Macduff. Beware the thane of Fife. Dismiss me. Enough.” – Sc. 1 – First apparition to Macbeth- Warning about Macduff
“Be bloody, bold, and resolute. Laugh to scorn The power of man, for none of woman born Shall harm Macbeth.” – Sc. 1- Second apparition to Macbeth- A deceptive prophesy saying that none born of women will harm Macbeth- This apparition fuels Macbeth’s overconfidence
“Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no care Who chafes, who frets, or where conspires are. Macbeth shall never vanquished be until Great Birnam Wood high Dunsinane Hill Shall come against him.” – Sc. 1- Third apparition to Macbeth- Another deceptive prophesy saying that Macbeth will not be defeated until the Birnam Wood moves towards Dunsinane Hill- The prophecy indicates that Macbeth is greater than nature itself- Again, the prophecy is raising his overconfidence
“Thou art too like the spirit of Banquo. Down! Thy crown does sear mine eyeballs. And thy hair, Thou other gold-bound brow, is like the first. A third is like the former. – Filthy hags! Why do you show me this? A fourth? Start, eyes! What, will the line stretch out to th’ crack of doom? Another yet? A seventh? I’ll see no more. And yet the eighth appears, who bears a glass Which shows me many more, and some I see That twofold balls and treble scepters carry. Horrible sight! Now I see ’tis true; For the blood-boltered Banquo smiles upon me And points at them for his.” – Sc. 1 – Macbeth to himself in front of the Witches- Witches show that Banquo’s sons will be kings- This indicates that Macbeth’s efforts will be fruitless- Certain things are unchangable- Macbeth is angry & upset- You look too much like the ghost of Banquo. Go away! (to the first) Your crown hurts my eyes. (to the second) Your blond hair, which looks like another crown underneath the one you’re wearing, looks just like the first king’s hair. Now I see a third king who looks just like the second. Filthy hags! Why are you showing me this? A fourth! My eyes are bulging out of their sockets! Will this line stretch on forever? Another one! And a seventh! I don’t want to see any more. And yet an eighth appears, holding a mirror in which I see many more men. And some are carrying double balls and triple scepters, meaning they’re kings of more than one country! Horrible sight! Now I see it is true, they are Banquo’s descendants. Banquo, with his blood-clotted hair, is smiling at me and pointing to them as his.
“That will never be: / Who can impress the forest, / bid the tree / Unfix his earthbound root? / Sweet bodements, good. / Rebellious dead, rise never till the wood / Of Birnam rise, and our high-plac’d Macbeth / Shall live the lease of nature, pay his breath / To time and mortal custom. Yet my heart / Throbs to know one thing. Tell me, if your art / Can tell so much, shall Banquo’s issue ever / Reign in this kingdom?” – Sc. 1- Macbeth to himself in front of the Witches- Macbeth is being overconfident – Macbeth is denying that anyone of these things could come true & loves what he’s hearing- Macbeth is also still worried about Banquo’s sons being Kings
“Ay, sir, all this is so. But why Stands Macbeth thus amazedly? Come, sisters, cheer we up his sprites, And show the best of our delights. I’ll charm the air to give a sound, While you perform your antic round That this great king may kindly say, Our duties did his welcome pay.” – Sc. 1 – First Witch to Macbeth- The Witches are satisfied with their meeting- The Witches fulfilled their plan in making Macbeth too overconfident/over zealous which will make things come to an end faster
“Time, thou anticipatest my dread exploits. The flighty purpose never is o’ertook Unless the deed go with it. From this moment The very firstlings of my hand. And even now, To crown my thoughts with acts, be it thought and done: The castle of Macduff I will sunrise, Seize upon Fife; give to the edge o’ the sword His wife, his babes, and all unfortunate souls That trace him in his line. No boasting like a fool; This deed I’ll do before this purpose cool. But no more sights! -Where are these gentlemen? Come, bring me where they are.” – Sc. 1- Macbeth to himself- Macbeth has a plan of action to ambush Macduff’s family- Shows how threatened Macbeth feels by Macduff- Macbeth is acting in the heat of the moment, very rash decisions
“He had none: His flight was madness: when our actions do not, Our fears do make us traitors.” – Sc. 2- Lady Macduff to Ross- Shows that Macduff shelters his family & has a loving family- Lady Macduff says even if you’re not a traitor, you’re going to look like one if you run away
“Wisdom! To leave his wife, to leave his babes, His mansion and his titles in a place From whence himself does fly? He loves us not; He wants the natural touch. For the poor wren, The most diminutive of birds, will fight, Her young ones in her nest, against the owl. All is fear and nothing is the love, As little is the wisdom, where the flight So runs against all reason.” – Sc. 2- Lady Macduff to Ross- Lady Macduff is extremely sad & worried about Macduff leaving her with the children- Metaphor of birds (she is a bird that will protect her nest)- Dramatic irony (audience knows that she will have to protect her kids because Macbeth has planned an ambush on them)- Lady Macduff says that Macduff lacks the natural instinct to protect his family & even the fragile wren, the smallest of birds, will fight against the owl when it threatens her young ones in the nest- Lady Macduff believes that his running away has everything to do with fear and nothing to do with love & wisdom
“Then the liars and swearers are fools, for there are liars and swearers enough to beat the honest men and hang them.” – Sc. 2- The son of Macduff to Lady Macduff- Then the liars are fools, for there are enough liars in the world to beat up the honest men and hang them
“My dearest coz, I pray you, school yourself: but for your husband, He is noble, wise, judicious, and best know s The fits o’ the season. I dare not speak much further; But cruel are the times, when we hold rumour From what we fear, yet know not what we fear, But float upon a wild and violent sea Each way and move. I take my leave of you: Shall not be long but I’ll be here again: Things at the worst will ease, or else climb upward To what they were before. My pretty cousin, Blessing upon you!” – Sc. 2- Ross to Lady Macduff- Ross is trying to reason with Lady Macduff & trying to calm her down- Ross understands what Macduff is trying to do, but he is sheltering Lady Macduff from whats happening- Ross understands that Macduff is a brilliant & noble man- This quote shows Macduff’s character based on what others think of him- Ross says tells Lady Macbeth that her husband, is noble, wise, and judicious, and he understands what the times require- He also says It’s not safe for him to say much more than this, but times are bad when people get denounced as traitors and don’t even know why
“Then the liars and swearers are fools, for there are liars and swearers enough to beat the honest men and hang up them.” – Sc. 2- The son of Macduff to Lady Macduff- Theme of deception- The son says that the liars are fools, for there are enough liars in the world to beat up the honest men & hang them
“Now, god help thee, poor monkey! But how wilt thou do for a father?” – Sc. 2- Lady Macduff to the son of Macduff- Lady Macduff is worried about her children growing up with no father
“Bless you, fair dame! I am not to you known, Though in your state of honour I am perfect. I doubt some danger does approach you nearly: I f you take a homely man’s advice, Be not found here; hence, with your little ones. To fright you thus, methinks, I am too savage; To do worse to you were fell cruelty, Which is too nigh your person. Heaven preserve you! I dare abide no longer.” – Sc. 2- Messenger to Lady Macduff- Messenger warns Lady Macduff about Macbeth’s ambush- The messenger says that he’s afraid something dangerous is coming toward her & for her to flee
“Thou liest, thou shag-haired villain!” – Sc. 2- The son of Macduff to the murderers- The son of Macduff is brave & loves his father dearly- Shows that Macduff is a great father & person- The son stands up for his father & tells the murderers that they are lying, shaggy-haired villains!
“He has killed me, mother. Run away, I pray you.” – Sc. 2- The son of Macduff to Lady Macduff- The ruthless Macbeth has killed an innocent child & family- Really goes to show how evil & horrible he has become- The son say that the murderer has killed him & for his mother to Run away
“Let us rather hold fast the mortal sword and like good men bestride our downfall birthdom; each new morn, new widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrows strike heaven on the face, that it resounds as if it felt with Scotland and yell’d out like syllable of dolor.” – Sc. 3- Macduff to Malcolm- Malcolm is gloomy & wants to cry but Macduff tells him to toughen up & fight back- Macduff is brave & everything Macbeth is not- Macduff tells Malcolm that Instead of crying, they should keep hold of their swords & defend their fallen homeland like honorable men- Macduff goes on to say that each new day widows howl, new orphans cry, & new sorrows slap heaven in the face, until it sounds like heaven itself feels Scotland’s anguish & screams in pain.
“What I believe I’ll wail, What know believe, and what I can redress, As I shall find the time to friend, I will. What you have spoke, it may be so perchance. This tyrant, whose ole name blisters our tongues, Was one thought honest: you have loved him well. He hath not touch’d you yet. I am young; but something You may deserve of him through me, and wisdom To offer up a weak poor innocent lamb T’ appease an angry god.” – Sc. 3- Malcolm to Macduff- Malcolm is worried that Macduff is a villain & just like Macbeth – This shows the audience how everyone has been affected & how everyone feels alone & unable to trust anyone else- Times are extremely tough- Malcolm says that he will avenge whatever he believe is wrong & I’ll believe whatever hes sure is true (gullible)- Malcolm states that Macduff may be planning to win Macbeth’s favor by betraying himself to Macbeth & that it would be smart to offer someone poor & innocent like him as a sacrificial lamb to satisfy an angry god like Macbeth
“But Macbeth is. A good and virtuous nature may recoil in an imperial charge. But I shall crave your pardon; that which you are, my thoughts cannot transpose; Angels are bright still, thous the brightest fell. Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace, yet grace must still look so.” – Sc. 3- Malcolm to Macduff- Malcolm is trying to trick Macduff & assessing his answers to his weird confessions & lies- Malcolm says that Macbeth is.someone with a good & virtuous nature that might give way to a royal command & that his fears can’t actually make Macduff evil- Malcolm says angels are still bright even though Lucifer, the brightest angel, fell from heaven- He also says that even though everything evil wants to look good, good still has to look good too (Theme of deception)
“Bleed, bleed, poor country! Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure.” – Sc. 3- Macduff to Malcolm- Macduff is desperate to get help & really wants Malcolm to trust him- Macduff is persistent & still demands to get help to harm Macbeth- Macduff says bleed, bleed, poor country! Great tyrant, go ahead and build yourself up!
“Fare thee well, lord. I would not be the villain that thou think’st For the whole space that’s in the tyrant’s grasp, And the rich East to boot.” – Sc. 3- Macduff to Malcolm- Macduff is trying to convince Malcolm that he is not a villain & on Macbeth’s side- Macduff says to Malcolm that he wouldn’t be the villain that Malcolm thinks he is even if he were offered all of Macbeth’s kingdom & the riches of the East too- Macduff is a great person & wouldn’t change even if he got the same honours as Macbeth
“Black Macbeth will seem as pure as snow, and the poor state esteem as a lamb, being compared with my confineless harms.” – Sc. 3- Malcolm to Macduff- Malcolm is still trying to deceive Macduff to see his true colors – Malcolm says that evil Macbeth will seem as pure as snow in comparison if he was king & that poor Scotland will call him a sweet lamb when they compare him to his infinite evils- Malcolm is trying to say that he would be worse then Macbeth- Metaphor of Macbeth being a lamb
“Not in the legions Of horrid hell can come a devil more damned In evils to top Macbeth.” – Sc. 3- Macduff to Malcolm- Macduff is still against Macbeth & won’t stop asking for Malcolm’s help to destroy him- Macduff says even in hell no one could find a devil worse than Macbeth- Macduff is showing signs that he is someone Malcolm could trust
“I grant him bloody, Luxurious, avaricious, false, deceitful, Sudden, malicious, smacking of every sin That has a name, But there’s no bottom, none, In my voluptuousness. Your wives, your daughters, Your matrons, and your maids could not fill up The cistern of my lust, and my desire All continent impediments would o’erbear That did oppose my will. Better Macbeth Than such an one to reign.” – Sc. 3- Malcolm to Macduff- Malcolm is still lying & trying to trick Macduff- Malcolm says Macbeth is horrible but at least he doesn’t have endless sexual desires- He says it would be better for Macbeth to rule than someone like him
“But I have none. The king-becoming graces – As justice, verity, temp’rance, stableness, Bounty, perseverance, mercy, lowliness, Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude – I have no relish of them, but abound In the division of each several crime, Acting it in many ways. Nay, had I power, I should Pour the sweet milk of concord into hell, Uproar the universal peace, confound All unity on earth.” – Sc. 3- Malcolm to Macduff- After Macduff tries to help him get over that bad quality & still tries to get him to become king, Malcolm goes on to say he has other worst qualities- Malcolm says he doesn’t have any good sides- He says that a king should have the qualities of justice, truth, moderation, stability, generosity, perseverance, mercy, humility, devotion, patience, courage, & bravery & he does not have those things- This quote also shows the audience that Macbeth is definitely none of those things & how much a tyrant he really has become (Theme of Tyranny)
“For strangers to my nature. I am yet Unknown to woman, never was forsworn, Scarcely have coveted what was mine own, At no time broke my faith, would not betray.” – Sc. 3- Malcolm to Macduff- Malcolm really believes Macduff is a good person & reveals to him that he has been lying about all those things to him to try to see if he was really good or bad- Malcolm says that none of those flaws are really part of his character, hes still a virgin & he has never told a lie
“Tis called the Evil. A most miraculous work in this good king, which often since my here-remain in England I have seen him do.” – Sc. 3- Malcolm to Macduff- Malcolm says that there is a sickness called evil & that king Edward’s healing touch is a miracle that heals people that has the sickness from it – Macbeth’s evil has transcended towards people & they are affected by it & are getting sick, weak & dying
“Alas, poor country, almost afraid to know itself. It cannot be call’d our mother, but our grave, where nothing, but who knows nothing, is once seen to smile; where sighs, and groans, and shrieks that rend the air are made, not mark’d; where violent sorrow seems a modern ecstasy. The deadman’s knell is there scarce ask’d for who, ad good men’s lives expire before the flowers in their caps, dying or ere they sicken.” – Sc. 3- Ross to Macduff & Malcolm- Ross is informing Macduff & Malcolm of the current state of Scotland- Everyone has turned against Macbeth, all his noble man & old friends- Ross says that Scotland is no longer the land where we they were born; it’s the land where they will die- He says no one ever smiles except for the fool who knows nothing, that there are nothing but sighs, groans, & shrieks – Ross states that violent sorrow is a common emotion & When the funeral bells ring, people no longer ask who died – He also says that good men die before the flowers in their caps wilt, that they die before they even fall sick – Scotland is a truly horrible place to live
“When I came hither to transport the tidings, Which I have heavily borne, there ran a rumour Of many worthy fellows that were out; Which was to my belief witness’d rather, For that I saw the tyrant’s power a-foot: Now is the time of help; your eye in Scotland Would create soldiers, make our women fight, To doff their dire distresses.” – Sc. 3- Ross to Macduff- Ross is warning that Macbeth is really getting ready for war & that Macduff & his army should be just as ready- He says that he heard rumors that many good men are arming themselves to rebel against Macbeth & when he saw Macbeth’s army on the move, he knew the rumors must be true- Ross deeply believes that now is the time when Scotland really needs their help & that their presence in Scotland would inspire people to fight
“Your castle is surprised, your wife and babes Savagely slaughtered. To relate the manner, Were, on the quarry of these murdered deer To add the death of you.” – Sc. 3- Ross to Macduff- Ross tells Macduff about his family & castle being ambushed & killed- Ross says that his castle was attacked & that his wife & children were savagely slaughtered- Ross had trouble delivering the news because not only is Macduff such a good person that doesn’t deserve this but it was because of him that his own family was slaughtered
“Merciful heaven! What, man! Ne’er pull your hat upon your brows. Give sorrow words. The grief that does not speak Whispers the o’erfraught heart and bids it break.” – Sc. 3- Malcolm to Macduff- Malcolm tells Macduff to let out his sorrow – Everyone is deeply upset & realizes how far Macbeth would go to even kill a family!
“He has no children. All my pretty ones? Did you say all? O hell-kite! All? What, all my pretty chickens and their dam At one fell swoop?” – Sc. 3- Macduff to Ross- Macduff doesn’t want to believe the truth, he is denying the fact that Macbeth killed his family- Macduff truly loves his family so much & feels so much guilt for his family being killed- Macduff says that Macbeth doesn’t have children & his evilness is because of it, Macbeth doesn’t understand love

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