a midsummer nights dream final

1 CE Metamorphoses started
Carmen et Error a song and error, banishment of Ovid
17 CE metamorphoses finished
1558 queen elizabeth ascends to the throne
1564 Shakespeare is born
1566 William Abbington 1st English translation of the Golden Ass
1576 First public theater is built “in London” (outside the city walls)
1600 the first quarto edition of Midsummer Night’s Dream was published
1603 Queen Elizabeth dies without an heir, and King James ascends the throne John Florio translated Montaigne’s essay of friendship
1613 the black friars perform the two noble kinsmen
1616 Shakespeare dies in Stratford
1619 the second quarto edition of MSND printed
1634 Two Noble Kinsmen printed in quarto
1642 parliament closes the theater (makes them illegal) due to puritan take over
1660 the restoration of the monarch and theater reopened by Charles IIWomen can now perform on stage
1667 Arthur Golding Translation of Ovid first complete english translation
1649 Charles 1 is beheadedThe people execute the monarch English civil war
1689 William and Mary ascent to the throne The physical structures of theater begin to change (restoration)
18th and 19th century view MND MND viewed as patriarchal, nationalistic, colonialism, history influenced the play
20th century view MND optimism, farce, silly, for children
1962 Purcell’s The fairy queen debut’s, operafirst adaptation of a MND dreammakes a lots of cuts (women’s monologues) written for wedding of William and Mary
command performance the monarch can call the theater to perform in the palace
groundling people in the standing room only
thrust stage a stage that pushes into the audience (no fourth wall)
The kingsmen Shakespeare’s theater company funded by the king
Inter regmun the period between kings (1649-1660)
quarto smaller, cheap book, folded four times
folio larger, folded twice used for classics, bible, sermon, valued work
solemnities a negative connotation to festive celebrations
league the distance someone could travel in an hour
palace wood in between the city and the country
Robin Goodfellow a character known in England for causing accidents (what Puck is called)
changeling a name parents give a child for acting out, they believe it’s an imposter child swapped by a fairya
adelphopoeisis two men joined together as brothers to make brotherly, rite performed by the church (midsummer)
puritan an extreme protestant
arthur golding first translator of metamorphoses
circes cup potion that turns people into animals The golden ass (Lucius), Ovid Metamorphoses
felixa culpa the fortunate fall Leads to the crucifixion/resurrection of Jesus Negative moment cast as ultimately fortunate Redemption of Lucius in the Golden Ass
Fletcher Shakespeare’s apprentice, co wrote the two noble kinsmen
gentlemen a step above a commoner, not nobility, does not work, property inheritance
the black friars indoor, private theater owned by the kingsmen that was used in the winter tending towards an upscale audience
court masque short plays performed to the court, by the court, very expensive (ex. Ben johnson) King James 1st, performed at black friars Indigo Jones: architect of masques Two Noble Kinsmen (gives upper class something to laugh at)The black friars were influenced by these masques
Chaucer, the knights tale Shakespeare took ideas from him for two nobel kinsmen which relates to Midsummer Nights Dream
translation to carry across from x to y, from one space to another, familiar to unfamiliar(foreign)metaphorein= to carry across, basis for metaphor Midsummer, Bottoms “transformation” into an ass
hermaphroditus son of hermes and aphrodite (midsummer)
moment of disbelief wonder, moment before comprehension (The History and Topography of Ireland)
union in partition Separate but together (Hermia and Helena)
orpheus poet, loves uricades, shes dies and he tries to go to underworld to bring her back-> is supposed to trust that she is behind him and not look back but he does and loses her. in ovid’s metamorphoses not read, but connects to MND
Sir Phillip Sidney defense of Poesy, hates english stage, produces mongrel tragicomedies = mixes kings and clowns, mix breed animals Disposed of Plato’s ideas that poets are liars, Theseus quotes that Poets are madmen, connection to science and literature, Shakespeare defuse of poesy, Turner? MND could be Shakespeare’s defense of poetry He uses theseus quote in the essay Says that poets are not claiming that what they are saying is the truth
hierarchy of being Ovid Transformations at different levels in Metamorphoses Divine – human – animal – vegetable – mineral
dactylic hexameter form of Metamorphoses by Ovid, typical form of epic however text is irreverent, digressive, 18 syllables Epic- linear, focus on a single event or person
ancient novel classification of the Golden AssEpisodic, interlaced subplot, chance coincidence, like a soap opera, no clear meaningful causal relationship
stationers register Two noble kinsmen) official book has any book about to be printed recorded 1st here. Show it identified as tragicomedy
Hermeneutic the delays between questions the text is proposing and the answers or resolution, Ex: the way Hamlet delays his revenge
logic of redemption you can’t be redeemed unless you sin in the first place
adaptation moving something from one medium to another”To modify or to fit” Changes have to be madeA translation is similar
medium specificity the qualities that make something what it isWhat distinguishes it We see Bottom’s transformation (special effects in the cinematic medium)
the globe Natural lighting, open air (weather constraints), a circle, tiered, thrust stage, no major scenery, no curtains, more interaction between actors and the audience
restoration theaters similar to the black friars Indoor, developed sets, percimean arch
proscenium arch the arch around the stage of restoration theaters, physical embodiment of a fourth wall – popular in restoration theatre -> adds stage direction none when A Mid Summer is first performed “The floor stage” – in front of the arch Audience feels a part of the play
Samuel peats Made a diary entry about MND and says that “the play had no sign”He dismisses the play (like aristocrats in the play do)He liked the dancing and the women only
opera all lines are sung, acting is subordinate to the singing, the spectacle, not about interpersonal relations
reynolds opera moving toward the victorian period, Britain and France at war with each other (Britain can match Theseus) shows colonialism – British national identity – nothing overtly British about it – play about division – discourse of rape – colonies are feminizedEx: Hermia apologizes to Egeus (patriarchal power) He structurally alters the play Replaces Pyramus and Thisbe Theseus tells the court Hypolletta wants to commemorate his conquestsShe is a conquest herself Theseus has the final words, not PuckThe marbles – they go from Athens to Britain Transferring glory of Ancient Greece to EnglandRightful heirsin our moonlight revels, by williams
the wedding march composed by Felix Mendelssohn”Overall overture and incidental music” for MNDTheseus and Hippolyta’s weddingThe advancement in the spectacle Celebrates Theseus as a hero Ironic because Shakespeare did not want this reading of Theseus Used for the princess royal 1588 (real wedding)stanley tucci 1999 and 1935 versions
1935 version (Reinhert and Diederly) Combo of theater and film (amise en scene)Techniques: continuity editing and establishing shot
sexual revolution increase in the public display of homosexual relations, birth control pills, baby boomers introduce more open mindedness
Peter Brooks production of MND – A white box, trapezius, pulleys, coil Puts pressure on the audience to use their imagination and pay attention to words Pure focus on words and imagination is what Shakespeare wanted “Theaterness of theater”royal shakespeare company, 1970can be condidered more tradition a
Montrose sleeping fantasies new historicism Connection between Elizabeth and Titania (Titania controls Bottom, yet she is controlled by Oberon) He is interested in the cultural fantasies (the Queen’s presence) Even if she is not mentioned, she is relevant in the culture (the Queen is perceived by the text and the text is shaped by the queen)
Old Historicism what events impact the writing of the play (biography, psychology, impression of how the audience feels, connecting the author’s life and mind Ex. MND was written for a wedding (the wedding is a source for the play) Topical references and allusions, biographical/psychological criticism, impressionist criticism
new criticism took the text exactly how it was itself, the language of the textRedirects attention away from author’s biography and towards a close reading approach Emphasis on form, structure, style and genreFocus on metaphors (history does not matter)
the GI bill soldiers receive free education The new criticism emerges after this is passedRequires less specialized skills to understand
democratic practice no matter your background you can read with practice
New Historicism need historical context surrounding the text to prove the metaphors Reaction against new criticismDiffers from Old Hist. because they argue that history itself is a textReciprocal influence between the texts occurring at the time Culture shapes the text and the text shapes culture Trying to restore agency into the texts A test doesn’t simply allude to ore reflect its historical moment and the culture that produced it, history is itself a text Montrose- Shaping fantasiesHendrick’s “Obscured by Dreams” – cultural racial embodiment The figurative representation of India localites Shakespeare’s representation of the fairies (India is a fairy land) English people were obsessed with what happens to you in foreign placesMakes Bottom a Molato
Amise en scene everything theater shares with cinema, set, costumes etc. Placed into the scene”Reinhart 1935 Warner Bros 1995 Pastiche of the fairy world
Richard Dadd painter of a midsummer night’s dreamBedlem -> Angela Carter’s commented on his paintings in her radio play come unto these yellow sands He was insane, relates to the idea of Shakespeare and madness He was fascinated with fantastical motifs in Shakespeare, the supernatural Puck Titania sleeping Oberon and TitaniaThe Fairy Feller’s Master Stroke
dadd puck he is clearly the central figure, fairies in the background are smaller
dadd titania sleeping e light highlights the main action, which is Titania (she is less dominant compared to the painting of Puck)
dadd oberon and titania light and dark are mixed, no contrast, blurryMadness developing
the fairy fellers master stroke, dadd very small canvas, miniscule detail, he accompanied the painting with a poem for explanation Shows his madness
establishing shot 1st shot in a sequence – clear representation of location of the scene ex: 1999 MND with Stanley Tucci set in Italy Ex. 1935 version where viewers see the forest before they see the fairies
1970 Peter Brooke’s adaptation of MND,
liminal spaces in between two distinct places, present in a MND with the forest being between fairy and real world, also geographically
Max Reinhert director of 1935 WB adaptation, theatre director, staged several important stage products, synthesis of theatre and cinema
William Dieterly director of 195 WB adaptation, background in stage, blame for visual effects/cinematic aspects
match cut when a film cuts from one scene to a completely different one or aligns and matches and in the exact same position and draw a metaphor from it Ex. the satellite replacing the bone is “a space odyssey”
dialogue scene shot reverse shot, shot of character speaking followed by a shot of other characters response at opposite angle of original shot
eye line match emphasize a character looking at something, character looking off screen followed by object/person the character is looking at (our mind creates the continuity)
180 degree rule drawing a line between two characters and the camera has to stay on one side for continuity
montage editing style of editing built around theory that editing should exploit the difference between shots in order to produce meaning The use of visual metaphors through juxtapositionsEx. Chaplin compares sheep to people exiting a subway in order to show that people lose agency Forces you to think
match on action if a cut occurs while a character is in action, the next shot must be the complement of the action
Freud’s civilization and its discontent freud focused on repression and individuals expansion onto civilization as a whole, final chapter of our moonlight revels by Gary J Williams bringing out underlying darkness in a MidsummerChanged our understanding of MND in the 20th century focused on the repression of fantasies erupting in dreams and that civilization represses the way the mind works
Mimetic desire want something only because someone else wants it, oberon wanting changeling boy, Angela Carter short story, 1st to 3rd person objectifies the golder herm -> sexualized
Kuleshov experiment hows how context determines how people interpret By Lev Kuleshov in 1917The actors faces did not change (same shot) even when seeing different images (soup verses a dead body), yet the audience sees two different facial expressions due to the joining of two different shots in order to make meaningAudience’s response effects the actor’s facesex: 1935 WB MND?
Sir Francis Bacon came up with the scientific method, philosopher and statesmen, relation to turner text, started to differentiate between arts and sciences, wants to get rid of slipperiness of language Contemporary of ShakespeareTurner’s Double Helix (science in a Midsummer Nights Dream)
Trivium/Quadrivium even liberal arts, shows division between science and language, language was once the beginning of knowledge, Trivium is language studied first and quadrivium is math, related to turner
Continuity Editing tries to not call attention to itself as editing in order to make the viewers more comfortable valued in old hollywood films, ex: 1935 version
Senex Iratus angry father
nested story story within a story
in ultramque partem on both sides of an issue
1999 MND adaptation wants to evoke sympathy to the characters Gender politics were relevant at the time, women were sexually repressedAddition of Bottom’s wife who was constantly nagging him, in order to force the audience to sympathize with Bottom Bottom is not dehumanized, he keeps his faceSpecial effects – does not show Bottom’s transformation The CGI’s are childish in order to be humorous The fairies are more connected to the human world, rather than being seperated in the playPyramus and Thisbe production is not comical (Flute is a good actor)
The new materialism/ The new new historicism focused on the common people believed the New Historians were wrong because they spoke about cultural fantasies as opposed to the tangible world, the material thing. They put too much focus on people of power,Wall, Why Does Puck Sweep?
Wall, “Why Does Puck Sweep” order is restored at the end of MND by the events being swept under the rug, Puck is in control the entire time like a housewife is, women’s work keeps a society running) New Materialism (directed towards the common people)Discusses the wide ranges of classes in the fairy world (ex. Puck in Oberon’s court, Robin Goodfellow among housewives) Genre of the “old wives tales”Fairies have control in the worldRelevance of domestic labor (no housewives in the play, Puck plays/evokes this tradition)
Charles kent director of the 1909 silent film version of MND.First film adaptation of MND.depicted what cinema and editing could do.
Russian Arct 2002, film by a Russian that was made by using one uninterrupted 96 minute shot
editing the process of cutting and pasting strips
life of an american fireman The use of cuts, editing creates a more complex plot through the ability to show multiple locations, which thus creates suspense due to the back and forth movement of scenes
homicidal monomania fixation of one particular delusion or idea, specifically homicide (ex. dadd)
Gustafson, “Were the World Mine” Film Breaking away from the rigid, normative society”It gets better movement”Ex. Helena gets what she wants in the woodthe woods are queer
double helix written by Turner, shows how literature can be scientific
Angela Carter “Overture and Incidental Music” short story, which starts with a first person perspective from the Changeling boy and shifts to the third person Mimics how the changeling moved from self agency to being an object of desireTakes the latent content of ShakespeareShe critiques colonialism Emphasizes that Titania and the votress were not equal, it was not a friendship (votaress was her worshipper) Wealthy french women would steal children for “play things”Does Not favor Titania Connected to Mendelsohns “the wedding march”
Plato banished poets from his “ideal society” Philosophers and scientists seek truth, while poets are trixsters due to their artful language (they disguise their position)
Memsahib Colonial India refererence to upper class white British women From carters overture and incidental music